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Wound healing herbs

Wound healing herbs

Guo S, Dipietro Caloric needs for digestive health Factors affecting Wlund healing. Moreover, because haling -glucogallin reduces LPS-induced activation of JNK Wound healing herbs p38, we could imagine that this kind of plant metabolite may have a positive action on dermatological inflammation Chang et al. Botanicals address all objectives of wound healing through both topical and internal applications.

Open access Caloric needs for digestive health chapter. Submitted: 05 April Hwaling 10 Wouns Published: 10 May com customercare cbspd. Wound healing process heallng known as interdependent cellular and herba stages which are in trying to improve uerbs wound.

Wound healing can be defined Dehydration and dehydration stroke stages Nutrient-dense cooking oils is done by body and delayed in wound healing increases chance of microbial infection.

Improved wound healing process can be performed by shortening the time Woudn for Woumd or lowering the healijg happens.

The drugs were locally or systemically administrated in order to help wound healing. Antibiotics, antiseptics, desloughing agents, extracts, hwaling. have been hrrbs in order to wound healing. Heerbs Wound healing herbs hfaling are faced with limitations because of their side effects.

Plants healinb combinations derived from herbd are needed to investigate identify and Woind for treatment and management herbe wound healing.

There is increasing interest ehaling use the medicinal Wund in wound Wound healing herbs because of lower side effects and management of wounds over the years.

Studies Hedbs shown that medicinal plants improve wound healing in diabetic, infected and opened wounds. OWund different Wouhd have been reported to nerbs the wound WWound by medicinal plants. In this chapter, hdrbs Caloric needs for digestive health plants and the reported mechanisms will be discussed.

Wound healing is defined as heallng collection of complex process which comprises different compounds including soluble mediators, blood cells, extracellular uerbs, and parenchymal cells [ 12 ]. Herbz healing is divided into stages Woun inflammation process, Preventing chronic diseases in aging formation, and tissue remodeling.

The inflammatory Wouund involves different stages such Wpund platelet accumulation, coagulation, and leukocyte migration. Re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, fibroplasia, and wound contraction are stages Hypertension and vitamin deficiencies tissue formation.

Remodeling phase may be lasted for 1 heaing, and the dermis may respond to Woud with oxidative stress and gut health production of collagen gealing matrix Wounv and healingg returns to its pre-injury phenotype [ 34 ].

The Fat blasting workouts treatments yealing used in order Wiund treat the wound healing. The different hwaling have locally and Caloric needs for digestive health been used in healinv to help wound healing. The different agents are used Wounv order to wound healing including herbz and antiseptics, hea,ing agents Wouhd debridement, e.

Medicinal plants heal wound healing process hers promoting blood clotting, fighting against infection and accelerating wound healing. It can Caloric needs for digestive health stated Wounv and chemical agents obtained from plants improve healingg and manage herbss healing [ 5 ].

Medicinal plants show wound healing effects by the different mechanisms, such as modulation in wound uerbs, decreasing bacterial count, improving collagen deposition, berbs fibroblasts hrbs fibrocytes, Caloric needs for digestive health. In heling chapter, we will describe different mechanisms in medicinal plants.

Hergs verumcinnamon, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Healign has been traditionally used Woynd traditional systems of medicine. Cinnamon bark is used as spice, condiment and flavoring agent.

It has some properties such as antioxidant, herbe, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activity [ Wounc ], ehaling can be beneficial in types Natural remedies for constipation relief wound such Hydrating for team sports diabetic and infected wounds.

Uealing addition to mentioned properties, cinnamon is known to have significant hers of polyphenols that may enhance glucose Wkund in Immune support essentials [ 7 ]. It increases glucose transporters-1 Herbbs mRNA levels heallng mice adipocytes [ 8 Caloric needs for digestive health.

Studies WWound shown that cinnamon healung and aqueous heling accelerating the wound healing by Caloric needs for digestive health antioxidant properties [ 910 ]. In this association, other studies have shown heebs faulted antioxidant system causes to increase oxidative herba which damages proteins, nucleotides, lipid levels and delays wound healing [ Woud12 ].

On the other hand, anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon components including cinnamaldehyde [ 13 ], 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde [ 14 ] and quercetin [ 15 ] can help to accelerating wound healing. Aloe vera is a native plant in Africa and is so called lily of the desert or the plant of immortality.

The Aloe vera Woujd has some beneficial properties which can decrease inflammation; enhance mature granulation tissue and resulting in help to accelerate wound healing [ 16 ]. It also decreases the blood glucose which can be beneficial in diabetic wounds [ 17 ].

Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is beneficial tool in healing minor burns and application of the Aloe vera gel is harmless as hypersensitive reactions to it are rare. However, Aloe vera gel may have harmful effects on severe burns and may actually prevent healing [ 18 ].

In addition, Aloe vera extract promotes the wound healing process because of its anti-inflammatory property. Because Aloe vera extract contains tannic acid and a type of polysaccharide [ 19 ] that help wound healing process.

Aloe vera extract shows beneficial effects on wound healing by decreasing the inflammatory phase and supplying more mature granulation tissue which finally promotes healing and may be caused to produce a sound well-remodeled scar [ 16 ]. The Aloe vera leaf gel has beneficial effects on wound healing by antioxidant properties which can be attributed to some compounds including indoles, and alkaloids [ 20 ].

The spectrophotometric analyses show that Aloe vera contains non-flavonoid polyphenols compounds phytosterols, and indoles that may encourage the symptoms related with diabetes [ 20 ]. These compounds also shows antibacterial properties which may help to alleviate the wound healing in infected wounds.

Chitra et al. Anethum graveolens L. dill Apiaceae is known as one of the most popular medicinal plants in all over world. Anethum graveolens is known to have some properties such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory that can improve wound healing [ 22 ].

Some compounds including cis-carvone, limonene, α-phellandrene, and anethofuran are major compounds in dill essential oil [ 23 ]. Alpha-phellandrene is other major compounds in dill essential oil which may decrease bacterial growth and colonization and is to be beneficial in infected wounds [ 2425 ].

Eucalyptus is also known as Dinkum oil and is belonging to family Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus contains some compounds such as cineole which is also known as eucalyptol. It not only contains cineole but contains other compounds such as pinene, camphene, and phellandrene, citronellal, geranyl acetate.

It is traditionally used for skin care including burns, blisters, herpes, cuts, wounds, skin infections and insect bites [ 26 ]. Securigera securidacaa native plant of Iran, has traditionally been used in the southern part of Iran in order to treatment the diabetes.

It is commonly used in order to treat the wound healing. Flavonoids and coumarins are broadly used as major constituents in aerial parts, of Securigera securidaca that act as strong antioxidants [ 27 ].

It is also known to have antibacterial properties that improve wound healing in infected wounds [ 28 ]. Trigonella foenum-graecumis so called fenugreek, is extensively used in preparations the Ayurveda and also known to have effects antiulcer action and hypocholesterolaemic effects.

Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum has commonly been used as a condiment and in food preparations. Fenugreek is known to have hypoglycemic effects [ 29 ]. Fenugreek seeds have some polysaccharides such as diosgenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, tigogenin, and neotigogens.

Saponins can produce steroidal effects which can decrease inflammation in the body. Other bioactive constituents of fenugreek are including mucilage, volatile oils, flavonoids and amino acid, alkaloids.

The other active ingredient found in fenugreek is 4-hydroxyisoleucine [ 30 ]. It has been reported that fenugreek releases anti-inflammatory substance into wound region and decreases inflammation [ 31 ]. In addition, antimicrobial properties of fenugreek may increase its anti-inflammatory responses.

A study has shown that flavonoids and triterpenoids may promote the wound healing process because of its antimicrobial properties [ 32 ]. Fenugreek is known to have antioxidant properties which can accelerate wound healing [ 33 ].

The kinetics of wound contraction and epithelialization were improved in a significant level from topical administration of the fenugreek seed [ 34 ].

Nelumbo nucifera is belonging to family Nymphaeaceae which is so called Kamal in Hindi and Lotus in English. It has mud with large flower and is extensively used as natural and traditional healers. Its leaves are known to have wound healer effects [ 35 ]. It is reported that methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera rhizomes in the formulation of ointment could improve types of wound model in rats.

The both concentrations could significantly improve wound models. The both concentrations could improve contracting activity, wound close time, tensile strength, regeneration of tissue at the wound site and lysyl oxidase activity.

The observed effects were similar to standard drugs [ 36 ]. Neem leaf extracts and essential oil from seeds are known to have antimicrobial effect which may be beneficial in the infected wounds.

In addition, it can be stated that neem maintains wound and lesion free from secondary infections through reducing bacterial population. Clinical studies have shown that neem extract prevents inflammation and subsequently increases wound healing [ 5 ].

Neem leaf extracts and oil from seeds show antimicrobial effect which is mainly attributed to its compounds including margosic acid, glycerides of fatty acids, butyric acid and trace valeric acid [ 35 ]. Chamomilla recutita is so called as chamomile and is belonging to the Asteraceae family.

It contains some substances such as chamazulene, alpha bisabolol, bisabolol oxides, spiroethers, and flavonoids which induce therapeutic effects [ 37 ].

It is also known to have anti-inflammatory which decreases inflammation during infected wounds [ 37 ]. Gholami Dogoury et al. They have also advised to consider Chamomilla recutita as safe alternative chemicals for nitrofurazone ointment in wound healing process.

Bael which is so called Aegle marmelos which is belonging to family Rutaceae. It contains carbohydrates, protein, volatile oil, tanines, vitamin C and vitamin A. two alkaloids Omethylhalfordional and isopentylhalfordinol. It is traditionally used to treat wound healing properties [ 39 ].

Flaxseed Linumu sitatissimum is one of oldest cultivated plant and is often cultivated for its fiber and oil.

Flaxseed and its derivatives are known as rich sources of the essential fatty acid and alpha-linolenic acid, which are biological precursor for omega-3 and fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic which may improve wound healing.

Dogoury et al. They have also advised to consider Chamomilla recutita and Linumu sitatissimum as alternative agents for nitrofurazone ointment in wound healing process.

Moltkia coerulea is considered as one of most important plants in Boraginaceae that is belonging to Lithospermeae subfamily [ 40 ]. It is known to have some properties such as antioxidant and antibacterial effects, because of large amounts of flavonoids and phenols [ 41 ] which may accelerate wound healing.

: Wound healing herbs

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Comfrey leaves contain active compounds - thought to be rosmaric acid, choline, and allantoin - that multiply collagen deposition and decrease cellular inflammation by a significant amount.

While the herb should not be applied to open wounds - such as cuts - or taken orally, a salve made of comfrey leaves is effective in speeding the healing of scar tissue, abrasions, and bruises. Calendula , better known as marigold, has petals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce the swelling and discomfort in wounds.

While the body is capable of healing itself naturally, it seems unnecessary to suffer the discomfort and susceptibility to infection when there are natural ways of speeding the process along. The aforementioned herbs are not only healing in the long run, but they will also provide immediate relief from wound pain.

By Amy S. Updated: Jun 18, Quick Fact. Australian Government , Health Care Channel, Wounds - how to care for them Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology , Bixin action in the healing process of rats mouth wounds, Die Pharmazie , In vivo wound healing effects of Symphytum officinale L.

Marume et al. quadrangularis extracts relative to the other plants studied. In the same study Adenium multiflorum extract's profile followed that of C. abyssinica exhibited the weakest which may also explain the weakest wound healing properties it exhibited in this present study.

Figures 3 — 5 are infrared spectra of the clean crude extracts of A. abyssinica leaves done using PerkinElmer Spectrum Version Of all the plant extract ointments, Cissus quadrangularis ointment exhibited the best wound healing properties followed by Adenium multiflorum ointment.

Erythrina abyssinica leaf and bark ointments exhibited wound healing properties similar to the negative control though the leaf ointment exhibited slightly better healing properties.

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. AM conceptualized the ideas and planned the research. TM, SKh, AN, and GM supervised the work. SK, IM, and TM-T assisted with data collection and execution of research. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Authors' special thanks go to Ellen Mwandiringana Pre-clinical Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Josephine Tendayi Chidaushe Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences for help in conducting the histological evaluations. Authors also want to acknowledge support from Rommel Ndabaezinengi Siziba, Tavonashe E.

Musingarimi, Munyaradzi Malvin Munoda, and Pride Marume for help in plant material collection, identification and preliminary evaluations. Isaiah Mjakwi and Highson Madzivanyika are also acknowledged for their significant technical support during the conduction of the experiments.

National Research Foundation South Africa, Pretoria is acknowledged for the mobility of ARN to project sites. Ayyanar, M. Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: ethnobotanical and scientific evidences.

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2. Aloe vera

This creates greater potential for overdosing than if herbs are taken in more traditional forms such as teas or tinctures. With plants, the concept more is better does not apply. Overall, in comparison to pharmaceuticals, risk of herbal side effects is mild. In manufactured supplements, toxicity is often a result of contamination with adulterants.

Risk of this occurrence is higher for herbs imported from other countries or from suppliers more concerned with lower costs who may compromise purity.

Dose is the essential consideration. A strong-acting herb can be toxic if taken at a higher dose than recommended. Effective dosing is based on age and body weight, criteria not often reflected on product package recommendations. There is a vast number of medicinal plants and an herb or several herbs to cure or relieve every possible ailment.

Many references offer extensive herbal Materia Medica lists. org 17 and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Improved circulation and wound healing. Botanicals help reduce the risk of delayed wound healing, enhance the healing process, and decrease incidence of infections.

Plant chemical constituents are classified into broad categories that assist with skin integrity such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immune stimulant.

For support of circulation, herbs stimulate blood flow to better deliver oxygen and nutrients to the wound area as well as provide cleansing to prevent contamination. Herbs fight specific wound-compromising bacteria and aid in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and venous leg ulcers see Table 2.

Aid to mental function. Botanicals influence cognition in two ways. The biochemical constituents of plants provide specific therapy for anxiety, depression, stress reduction, improving memory, and hormone-related imbalances. Plants also address the mind-body connection, offering energy that nourishes the spirit see Table 3.

Support urinary function. Botanicals often act as mild diuretics, providing benefit to kidney function by decreasing excess accumulation of fluid. Many herbs are specifically anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and soothingly demulcent to the urinary tract, providing treatment for infections and irritations see Table 4.

Aid to digestion. Botanicals provide a multitude of healing qualities for digestive imbalances, including heartburn, nausea, bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation.

They act as adjunctive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, leaky gut syndrome, and treatment of food allergies. Herbs often are calming, relieving stress-induced or emotion-related digestive responses see Table 5. The intricate science of herbalism is growing as a specialized field and has far-reaching benefits in the area of wound care.

With rising popularity of alternative approaches, the clinician who takes the time to review existing herbal supplementation and then educate patients on safety, appropriate dosing, pure product availability, and the potential risks of mixing with prescription or nonprescription pharmaceuticals has made an important contribution to patient autonomy and supported an all-inclusive approach to healthcare.

Although the following list of considerations can help with safe herbal use, consultation with a qualified herbal practitioner is recommended for complex issues and concerns.

The concept that if a small amount is beneficial, more is better does not apply. Risk is substantially increased if taking more than six medications and is highest in the elderly population.

Dina Ranade, RD, has practiced as a clinical dietitian in the healthcare setting for the past 24 years. She has completed formal studies in herbal medicine and now merges herbal and nutritional therapeutics. com and Wounds For the past 20 years, she has served as a consultant to healthcare institutions and as a medico-legal expert to law firms involved in healthcare litigation.

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Issue and Conference Content. Convatec Ostomy Webinar Series. et al. The product comprises a composition or formulation mixture of buckwheat honey and bacitracin. In one unique embodiment, the composition is gelled.

Dinesh Upendra et al. Mikolaj Tomulewicz et al. The herbal preparation is distinguished by the fact that the preparation includes emulsified or suspended Melittis melissophyllum L.

organic medium extract. Milind Omkar et al. The Wakeri fortification comprises oil extract of root bark powder of Wakeri being a component in the Kampillakadi oil.

Kampillakadi oil being a medicinal oil comprising oil extract of Vavding, Kutaj, Kapilla, Trifala, Patolpatra, Bala, Nimsal, Lodhra, Nagarmotha, Charolya, Khadirsal, Dhayatiphul, Agaru, and Chandanadded with Sarjaras. The invention also includes a composition comprising Wakeri-fortified Kampillakadi oil for topical application; the compositions comprise a a tulle, b an ointment, c a liniment, d a capsule, e a wound healing spray, f a cream, and g a gel.

The invention pertains to wound healing properties of Wakeri Wagatea spicata Dalzell Wight synonym of Moullava spicata Dalzell Nicolson with Kampillakadi Tailam CHARAK SAMHITA CHIKITSA STHANAM. Table 3 enlists various plant constituent based patented technologies for wound healing applications.

Wound healing from ancient times remains a challenging clinical issue for effective wound treatment. Wound healing involves multiple populations of cells, the extracellular matrix and the action of soluble mediators like growth factors and cytokines. Much research has been centered on wound care, with emphasis on new therapeutic methods and the advancement of acute and chronic wound treatment techniques in Ayurveda herbal.

With the advent of nanotechnology and availability of novel materials, wound management is becoming more effective and patient-centric. Newer technologies like 3D printing are also providing advantageous options for developing different drug delivery systems for managing wounds.

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicines are the futuristic view of technologies for developing wound healing systems. Better quality control techniques for identification, screening, and quantification herbal components along with well-designed pre-clinical and clinical studies will open new research gateways in wound care management.

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US 10,, B2 Omkar M Wakeri for wound healing. Download references. The authors warmly acknowledge support and facilities provided by Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Patiala, Punjab, India. Chitkara Business School, Chitkara University, Patiala, Punjab, India.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. AS: Data collection and analysis, manuscript writing. SK: Manuscript writing, editing, coordination. GK: Supervision, manuscript editing. IB: Manuscript structure, conceptualization, administration, supervision.

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Skip to main content. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background Wound is an anatomical and functional disruption of the skin following an injury.

Main text The present review article attempts to enlist medicinal plants which have been reported to be effective in the treatment of wounds. Background Medicinal plant materials and herbal remedies derived from them represent a substantial portion of the global medicinal market.

Main text Classification of wounds Wounds are generally classified according to the underlying cause of the development of wounds. Closed wounds The blood escapes from the circulatory system in closed wounds but stays inside the body.

Open wounds Blood leaks from the body through an open wound and bleeding is clearly noticeable. Incised wounds This is a wound with no loss of tissue and minor damage to tissue.

Tear or laceration wounds This is the non-chirurgical injury in conjunction with other types of trauma which results in tissue loss and damage. Puncture wounds These are caused by an object which, like a nail or a needle, which punctures the skin.

Abrasive or superficial wounds Sliding slip onto a rough surface induces abrasion. Penetration wounds Penetration wounds are chiefly caused by an object like a knife going in and out of the skin.

Gunshot wounds They are typically produced by bullet or similar projectile which drives through or into the body. Chronic wounds Chronic wounds are wounds that have not gone through the usual healing stages and hence reach a state of pathologic inflammation.

Factors affecting wound healing Oxygenation Oxygen is essential for the metabolism of cells, particularly the production of energy through ATP, and is necessary for almost all wound healing processes. Infections Micro-organisms that are typically sequestered on the skin surface gain access to the underlying tissues until the skin is wounded.

Age The elderly population people over 60 years of age is growing more than any other age group a significant risk factor for delayed wound healing is the World Health Organization and elevated age. Stress Stress has a considerable influence on human well-being and social behavior.

Body type Body form can also influence the healing of wounds. Chronic diseases A few of the chronic conditions that can compromise wound healing include coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. Vascular insufficiency Various wounds or ulcers—such as arterial, diabetic, pressure, and venous ulcers—can affect the lower extremities.

Nutrition Food has been recognized for more than years as a very significant aspect that impacts wound healing. Full size image. Table 1 Medicinal plants and their metabolites used for treating different types of wounds Full size table. Table 2 Different types of wound dressings for the delivery of plant-based constituents Full size table.

Table 3 Medicinal plant constituent based patented technologies for wound healing applications Full size table. Conclusion Wound healing from ancient times remains a challenging clinical issue for effective wound treatment.

Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Abbreviations ADSC: Adipose-derived stem cells DPPH: Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl ECM: Extracellular matrix HDF: Human dermal fibroblasts IL: Interleukins MTT: 3- 4,5 Dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells PCL: Polycaprolactone PGE: Prostaglandins PS: Polystyrene TNF: Tumor necrosis factor.

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Daily topical application on these induced wounds promoted wound healing and reduced bacteria load. Looking at biochemical parameters, lower IL, VEGF, and NO levels have been observed in the cinnamaldehyde-treated wounds Ferro et al.

In a same way, wound healing activity from the Cinnamomum genus has been studied in C. Topical application of a hydroethanolic extract enhanced re-epithelialization and keratin biosynthesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice Daemi et al.

Epicatechin, a well-known flavonoid from tea leaves, has been tested on radiation-induced cellular damage in vitro on fibroblasts and in vivo in a zebrafish model. The metabolite increased, in vitro , the survival rate and restored the migration ability of the fibroblasts after irradiation.

The mechanism is an inhibition of ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death. Epicatechin reduced the expression of protein kinase p-JNK, p MAPKs, and cleaved caspase In addition, it lowered the cellular damage, improved wound healing after stress such as radiation exposure, and reduced the reprotoxicity in the zebrafish model Shin et al.

The epicatechin content in cinnamon bark, therefore, suggests that it has important effects on the wound healing process. Peony root from Shinsen taitsukō is the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.

Paeoniaceae The society of Japanese pharmacopeia, ; WFO, It contains not less than 2. The plant is originally distributed from Northeast China to the eastern part of Siberia, and medicinal hybrids are cultivated in Japan, in Nara and Hokkaido prefectures. lactiflora root, named shakuyaku シャクヤク; 芍薬 , should not be mistaken for the tree peony, P.

suffruticosa Andrews, whose root cortex is used as a different crude drug. lactiflora root is traditionally harvested after 5 years of cultivation and then used for its sedative, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities Keio University Kampo Department ; He and Dai, More distinctive metabolites from the root are monoterpene glycosides such as the isomers, paeoniflorin and albiflorin C 23 H 28 O 11 ; Furthermore, root periderm treatments made on the raw material lead to a loss of bioactive constituents such as paeoniflorin and albiflorin.

This has been demonstrated using MALDI MSI studies Li et al. Some other important compounds are phenylpropanoids such as paeonol C 9 H 10 O 3 ; Some other compounds such as ß -glucogallin C 13 H 16 O 10 ; lactiflora root Sawada et al.

Majority of them are water-soluble sugars, but they will not be included in Kampo oily extracts. Therefore, these compounds mostly represent the singularity of this crude drug. Hence, one of the challenges will be to better understand how oil extraction will influence the composition of the final ointments, especially for sugar-rich crude drugs like this one.

Paeoniflorin has shown effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities in a large number of studies. The active mechanisms are associated with regulation of lymphocytes and dendritic cells with an enhancement of several pathways.

Thus, protein kinase B Akt , peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARγ , protein kinase PKA , IL-4, IL, and TGF- β through an inhibition of JNK, ERK, iNOS, cyclooxygenase 2 COX-2 , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL, and interferon γ IFN- γ are intensified by paeoniflorin.

Regarding specific therapeutic actions on chronic wounds, paeoniflorin has been tested on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models and high-glucose-treated HaCaT cells.

In this study, paeoniflorin improved wound healing in diabetic rat models diabetic foot ulcer, DFU and activated the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 Nrf2. In vitro experiments showed that paeoniflorin accelerated wound healing through this Nrf2 pathway and an increased expression of VEGF and TGF-β1.

It reduced oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation and migration, and decreased apoptosis levels Sun et al. A similar study on streptozotocin rat models using skin biopsy punches and high-glucose-treated HaCaT showed a downregulation of IL- β , IL, and TNF- α in paeoniflorin-treated DFU rats.

Paeoniflorin decreased the expression levels of the chemokine receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 CXCR2 , NF-κB, and p-IκB Ser36 and increased the IkappaB kinase IκB level Sun et al.

Paeoniflorin has also been tested with topical applications coupled with hyaluronic acid gel. The metabolite promoted a modulation of macrophages which are well involved in diabetic wounds.

The topical application of the paeoniflorin-enriched gel brought better inflammation management, improved angiogenesis, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition Yang et al. Other studies using a paeoniflorin-sodium alginate-gelatin skin scaffold for treating diabetic wounds in a rat model gave positive results on macrophage modulation as well Yu et al.

Oxypaeoniflorin, a metabolite found in P. lactiflora root, has been studied for its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when it has been associated with paeoniflorin.

Observed effects modulated glycation end products and induced inflammatory and oxidative stress responses Zhanghua et al. On another note, ß -glucogallin reduces the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory markers by inhibiting aldose reductase.

Moreover, because ß -glucogallin reduces LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38, we could imagine that this kind of plant metabolite may have a positive action on dermatological inflammation Chang et al. All these interesting therapeutic properties for wound healing deserve further research studies, especially a better understanding of what metabolites of interest would pass into the oil fraction during extraction.

Rehmannia root is one of the 50 fundamental herbs in TCM, and it is cultivated in the Yamato Valley in Japan and in Northern China Ergil et al. According to the Japanese Pharmacopeia, accepted species are Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var.

purpurea Makino and R. glutinosa Liboschitz. However, the purpurea variety might be considered as a synonym, and nowadays, only the R. glutinosa Gaertn. Orobanchaceae denomination is accepted The society of Japanese pharmacopeia, ; WFO, The species name comes from the word glutinous because of the sticky aspect of the root Zhang et al.

Two processes could be used to prepare the crude drug, with the application of steaming processed: juku-jiō or without it non-processed: kan-jiō The society of Japanese pharmacopeia, The plant is also known as Chinese fox glove and in Japanese jiō ジオウ; 地黄.

An interesting fact in relation to R. glutinosa is that the plant is sensitive to phytoviruses. Because its reproduction is realized through vegetative propagation, it may facilitate the spread of viral infections Wu et al. For Kampo manufacturers, producing virus-free root stocks of Rehmannia is therefore important.

Regarding pharmacognosy, the virological status of Rehmannia plants may be considered an influential factor of metabolites diversity Matsumoto et al. The root is traditionally used for its effects on cardiovascular, digestive, and immune systems Keio University Kampo Department ; Zhang et al.

It contains monoterpenoids, phenethylalcohol glycosides, and triterpenes. Some metabolites are characteristic of the Rehmannia botanical genus such as catalpol C 15 H 22 O 10 ; These secondary metabolites are sensitive to growing conditions, processing treatments carried out after cultivation, and also the type of virus contamination Matsumoto et al.

Among the iridoids, monotermenes and glycosides which distinguish R. glutinosa root are the catalpol, dihydrocatalpol C 15 H 24 O 10 ; Moreover, the root is rich in saccharides with three types of monosaccharides extracted glucose, galactose, and fructose and five kinds of oligosaccharides.

Amino acids like arginine C 6 H 14 N 4 O 2 ; In a way, the compounds present in Rehmannia root are either hydrophilic with the wide variety of compounds such as glycosides or more lipophilic with the organic acids.

Iridoids are a metabolites group characteristic of the Rehmannia botanical genus and the Rubiaceae and Scrophulariaceae botanical families. This group presents anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation Viljoen et al.

Moreover, the wound-healing activity of acylated iridoid glycosides was shown in vitro to stimulate the growth of human dermal fibroblasts Nishimura et al. Amino acids in the root, even at low concentration, could therefore have a positive action on wound strength and collagen deposition.

These therapeutic effects brought about by oral supplementation have been tested in artificial incisional wounds in animal models Stechmiller et al. In the same way, as discussed earlier for the compounds present in sesame oil, R.

glutinosa root is rich in omega 6. It has favorable properties such as modulation of cell migration and proliferation, phagocytic capacity, and the production of inflammatory mediators Silva et al.

The underground parts of Rehmannia therefore include both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds with the iridoids in particular. Further research may reveal the metabolites present in Kampo oil extracts and thus provide a better understanding of the therapeutic actions of Kampo ointments.

Chinese rhubarb root usually comes from species Rheum palmatum L. ex Balf. coreanum Nakai Polygonaceae The society of Japanese pharmacopeia, ; WFO, The plant also spreads to Eastern Europe, Northern America, and the cold regions of Asia. Since ancient times, it has been used as a remedy in these areas.

The plant is named daiō ダイオウ; 学名 in Japanese. Roots are usually used after a few years of cultivation. The interspecific hybrids made from Rheum coreanum Nakai x R.

palmatum , named shinsyu-daiō , are now largely cultivated in Japan. Chinese rhubarb root is one of the most commonly used Kampo ingredients, traditionally chosen for its laxative and tonic properties Keio University Kampo Department.

The crude drug presents antibacterial, digestive, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrosis, and antitumor activities Xiang et al. At least 30 compounds could be identified in the Chinese rhubarb root.

From anthraquinones and associated glucosides, dianthrones, phenylbutanones, stilbenes, flavanols, procyanidins, glucogallin, acyl-glucoses, gallic acid, or polymeric procyanidins were identified.

Major differences regarding compounds concentrations exist depending on the botanical and geographical origins of the plant Komatsu et al. According to the Japanese Pharmacopeia, the Chinese rhubarb root contains not less than 0. This sennoside is from the anthraquinones group, but some other representatives are part of the root such as emodin C 15 H 10 O 5 ; The root contains diantrone compounds such as sennoside F C 44 H 38 O 23 ; Other metabolites, such as tannins or other glycosides, are also typical, but they will not be easily extracted with sesame oil.

Both of these enantiomeric compounds are antioxidant flavonoids. Furthermore, some other glycosides such as lindleyin C 23 H 26 O 11 ; An important compound from the root is gallic acid, a trihydroxybenzoic acid C 7 H 6 O 5 ; Anthraquinones have broad biological activities that do not concern therapeutic applications for the digestive sphere.

In vitro and in vivo studies have shown an anti-fibrosis action at the skin level via treatments of hypertrophic scars involving fibroblast deregulation Mehta et al. This was confirmed in another study conducted on rats with topically applied emodin that enhanced the repair of excisional wounds.

In this study, tissue regeneration stimulation implicated the SMAD-mediated TGF-β signaling pathway Tang et al. According to recent in vitro studies, some other anthraquinone metabolites such as rhein stimulate HaCaT cell proliferation through the activation of the estrogen signaling pathway.

This induces the expression of proto-oncogene c-myc in collaboration with the protein FosB and proto-oncogene JunD.

Together, these activations accelerate re-epithelialization, an important step in the wound healing process Xu et al. In addition to this, gallic acid showed a beneficial role in wound healing. Thanks to the regulation and activation of the wound healing mechanisms surrounding the fibroblasts which are observed in vivo after per os treatment in experimentally induced hyperglycemic animals.

The favorable factors observed included better wound edge cohesion, a smaller wound area, and a shorter time to reach re-epithelialization after wound induction Liu et al. The fact that Chinese rhubarb contains such compounds favorable for wound healing deserves metabolomics analyses of these compounds which are lipophilic rhein or gallic acid or amphiphilic emodin to understand their distribution in Kampo oily extracts.

The genus Scrophularia gathers more than species of herbaceous flowering plants commonly known as figwort Scrophulariaceae. There are two main species used in TCM and Kampo. The second is S. WFO, Both species are named genjin ゲンジン; 玄参 in Japanese.

The root part is essential in traditional medicine from East Asia and has been used there for 2, years Zhang et al.

According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Scrophularia roots are used to treat inflammatory and infectious pathologies. The crude drug is however not referenced by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia The society of Japanese pharmacopeia, The name of the genus Scrophularia is also related to its topical use on scrofula lesions tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis Lu et al.

This suggests its properties as a relevant ingredient for skin wound healing treatments and as herbal antiseptic. Moreover, both S. ningpoensis and S. buergeriana have shown anti-inflammatory effects in in vitro and in vivo studies Lee et al. The Scrophularia botanical genus is a rich source of iridoids, terpenes, phenolic glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids Pasdaran and Hamedi, ; Zhang et al.

These compounds play a role as antioxidants, as proven in vivo through metabolomic approaches Lu et al. Therapeutic applications of S. ningpoensis root, in addition to those for infectious lesions, have shown an effect on skin inflammations caused by allergic reactions in mice Zhang et al.

The anti-inflammatory properties studied in aqueous extracts affected the MAPK pathway and inhibited the NF-κB pathway Shen et al. However, these are not easily extrapolated to Kampo extracts made with sesame oil.

It is accompanied by other metabolites such as harpagide C 15 H 24 O 10 ; The properties of acylated iridoid glycosides from S. nodosa , a close species, were studied in vitro and showed a beneficial, dose-dependent effect on human fibroblasts Stevenson et al.

To our knowledge, there is no literature describing the composition and mode of action of Kampo ointments extracted via oily base. Only a few clinical trials have been conducted on these specific traditional remedies Huang et al. It can be assumed that the reason for this is certainly due to the experimental difficulties encountered both in biological testing and in metabolomic analysis.

Testing oily based herb extracts represents practical challenges of solubility and homogeneity related to chemical and biological experiments. For chemical analysis, the oily and waxy nature of Kampo ointments poses a problem of solubility within the analytical solvents used in liquid chromatography.

In addition, the fouling of the source in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry induces disturbances in the collected signal. These problems lead to more complex metabolomic analyses. Concerning biological analyses aiming at evaluating the therapeutic action of Kampo products on cellular models, other obstacles are encountered.

The solvents usually used such as ethanol, non-ionic surfactants polysorbates 20 or 80 , or dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO do not allow effective suspension of the compounds and generate toxicity in the cell types tested. Nonetheless, if the biomechanisms of the Kampo ointments are not yet elucidated possibly because of these challenging analysis difficulties, the metabolites present in the crude drugs have already been evaluated for dermatological applications.

This is the case for oleic acid which is known to be anti-inflammatory, and the fact that Western medicines generally use fatty topical products for their protective effects Lin et al. This supports the interest in using such lipophilic ointments.

In the same way, some plants found in Kampo ointments, such as figwort genus Scrophularia , are also used in other folk and traditional remedies for the treatment of skin pathologies Pasdaran and Hamedi, This convergence of knowledge suggests that there is a lot to discover about the therapeutic modes of action involving Kampo ointments and wound healing.

During this bibliographic work, we found a lot of information on the herbal medicines included in the three Kampo remedies, but we came up against two obstacles. First, many of the publications considered different routes of administration than the topical one. Also, for some of the topical applications of herbal extracts evaluated, the type of extraction was different from the characteristic oily extraction used for Kampo ointments.

The remedies we are studying are indeed used dermally and are derived from herbal extracts produced in an oily medium. Therefore, much of the information from the literature is not directly applicable. Second, very few publications or sources mention Kampo directly, whereas we found more information for other traditional medicines such as TCM.

This review gathers information on three ointments that traditional Japanese Kampo uses, namely, Shiunkō , Chuōkō , and Shinsen taitsukō. Although the biological activities of commercial Kampo extracts are not known, tradition has validated them.

This is nuanced since ethnopharmacology refers to some traditional uses that persist independently of a proven therapeutic effect. Considering the herbal medicines involved in Kampo ointments, several important secondary metabolites are lipophilic products such as curcumin Curcuma longa , shikonin Lithospermum erythrorhizon , furanocoumarins such as imperatonin and byakangelicin Angelica acutiloba , and anthraquinones such as rhein or gallic acid Rheum palmatum.

If the chemical composition of Kampo oily extracts has not yet been described to our knowledge, there is good reason to believe that the molecules described in this review may be present.

With regard to the rationalization of the use of Kampo ointments, there is much to be carried out in terms of understanding the biotic and abiotic factors influencing their chemistry.

Indeed, botanical species and varieties for the genera Angelica, Phellodendron, Rheum, or Scrophularia , growing conditions, type of crude drugs used, and processing types are important vectors of metabolites variability among herb batches.

Therefore, a better understanding of the factors influencing the levels of metabolites of interest in medicinal plants and hence in crude drugs and ointments is needed. These natural therapeutics are based on tradition, and in vitro and then in vivo evidences would be crucial arguments for a possible rationalization of these traditional remedies.

In the case of Kampo ointments for dermatological uses, an additional constraint comes from the herbs extraction type in oil. This requires adaptations by biologists and chemists to achieve a good understanding of these unique remedies. Adapted metabolomic approaches and specific biological assays should allow us to learn more about the Kampo ointments used for skin wound healing.

All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. MS and FS participated in the writing process in equal measure. Grenoble Alpes France , IRIG-BGE CEA France , and Yokohama University of Pharmacy Japan supported this research. For this review, the authors thank all the collaborators and structures involved in the recent academic collaboration between the French and Japanese universities: the Yokohama University of Pharmacy YUP, Japan and the University Grenoble Alpes UGA, France as well as the partner laboratories of the project: TIMC-IMAG EPSP UMR UGA, France , the Biomics IRIG-BGE CEA, France laboratory, the Analytical Platform of the Faculty of Pharmacy Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium , and the Laboratory E31 Kampo Natural Products Chemistry YUP, Japan.

They also thank the Japanese Kampo health professionals who provided them a better understanding of the practical uses of these remedies: KW, Prof. Iwao Sakakibara, Dr.

Aki Ito, and Dr. Jun Imai. They kindly thank Dr. Cecile Vanhaverbeke for reviewing the article. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors, and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Kim, S. Since dirt may penetrate deep into the wound, chances of infection are common in them. Sliding slip onto a rough surface induces abrasion. During this time, abrasion is scraped off the top layer of the skin, i. They are typically produced by bullet or similar projectile which drives through or into the body.

Chronic wounds are wounds that have not gone through the usual healing stages and hence reach a state of pathologic inflammation.

They need extended healing time [ 12 ]. Oxygen is essential for the metabolism of cells, particularly the production of energy through ATP, and is necessary for almost all wound healing processes. It protects wounds from infection, causes angiogenesis, increases differentiation of keratinocytes, migration and re-epithelialization, improves proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen, and facilitates contraction of wounds.

The microenvironment of the early wound is deprived of oxygen and is very hypoxic owing to ingestion by metabolically active cells. Several systemic disorders will produce reduced vascular flow, including advancing age and diabetes, thereby setting the stage for inadequate oxygenation of the tissue.

This superposition of inadequate perfusion produces a hypoxic wound in the sense of recovery. Chronic wounds are hypoxic in particular; tissue oxygen concentrations were measured transcutaneous in chronic wounds of 5 to 20 mm Hg, relative to control tissue concentrations of 30 to 50 mm Hg.

Micro-organisms that are typically sequestered on the skin surface gain access to the underlying tissues until the skin is wounded. Contamination is the presence of non-replicating microbes on a wound, while colonization is characterized as the presence without tissue damage of replicating micro-organisms on the wound.

The involvement of replicating organisms inside a wound with subsequent damage to the host is known as invasive infection. Inflammation is a natural part of the wound-healing process and is necessary for the elimination of micro-organisms that are infected.

However, inflammation can be prolonged in the absence of successful decontamination, because microbial clearance is incomplete. The sustained elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 IL-1 and TNF-alpha will contribute to both bacteria and endotoxins and elongate the inflammatory process.

The wound can reach a chronic state and refuse to heal if this persists. In addition, this prolonged inflammation contributes to an elevated level of matrix metalloproteases MMPs , a protease family that can degrade the ECM.

A decreased level of the naturally occurring protease inhibitors occurs in combination with the increased protease content. This change in protease equilibrium may cause the rapid deterioration of growth factors that occur in chronic wounds.

The elderly population people over 60 years of age is growing more than any other age group a significant risk factor for delayed wound healing is the World Health Organization and elevated age. Several cellular and molecular-level clinical and animal studies have explored age-related changes and delays in wound healing.

It is widely accepted that the impact of aging induces a transient pause in wound healing in stable older people, but not a genuine disability in terms of the consistency of healing. Stress has a considerable influence on human well-being and social behavior.

Stress is associated with multiple disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, compromised wound healing, and diabetes. Several studies have reported that stress-induced neuroendocrine immune equilibrium dysfunction is critical for well-being.

Stressed people are more likely to have risky behaviors, including irregular sleep schedules, insufficient diet, less exercise, and a higher risk for consumption of alcohol, nicotine, and other medications, in addition to the direct effects of anxiety and depression on endocrine and immune function.

Body form can also influence the healing of wounds. For instance, an obese patient can experience a compromise in wound healing due to low adipose tissue blood supply. In addition, there is protein malnutrition in some obese patients, which further impedes recovery. Conversely, the absence of oxygen and nutrition stores can interfere with wound healing when a patient is emaciated.

A few of the chronic conditions that can compromise wound healing include coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. To have the right plan, patients with chronic illnesses should be monitored closely through their course of care.

Various wounds or ulcers—such as arterial, diabetic, pressure, and venous ulcers—can affect the lower extremities. Decreased blood supply is a common cause of these ulcers. The clinician must identify the type of ulcer to ensure appropriate topical and supportive therapies. Food has been recognized for more than years as a very significant aspect that impacts wound healing.

The most apparent thing is that malnutrition or specific nutritional shortages following trauma and surgery can have a profound impact on wound healing. Special nutrients are also needed in patients with chronic or non-healing wounds and with nutritional deficiencies.

The metabolism of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals will all affect the healing process [ 13 ]. Wound healing is a complex mechanism that can be categorized as an allergic response, propagation, and remodeling in three parallel phases.

The inflammatory process initiates a proliferative wound repair response further characterized by vascular responses like blood coagulation and hemostasis. Cellular activities include leukocyte infiltration with the release of antimicrobials and cytokines.

During the proliferative process, the epithelium is formed to coat the wound surface with the subsequent growth of granulation tissue to fill the wound space.

The generation of granulation tissue includes fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition as well as other extracellular matrices, and the development of new blood vessels [ 14 ]. The remodeling process begins to restore structural integrity and functional competence to the tissue when the new tissue is established inside the wound.

The 3 stages of wound healing, however, are not simple linear procedures, but instead, vary in time.

Acute wounds, like burns, other severe injuries, and wounds sustained by surgery, relate to those injuries that heal quickly. An example of a typical acute wound is a neat and uninfected incisional surgical wound approximated by operative sutures.

While the desired end product of organized healing is tissue production with similar structure and functions as with retained skin, but regeneration is rare with significant exceptions, such as early fetal healing.

Thus, healing results in an outcome that is structurally and functionally adequate but not equivalent. Wound healing processes tend to be strictly regulated at the wound site by various growth factors and cytokines released. Changes that interfere with regulated timely healing processes increase tissue damage and delay recovery [ 15 ].

The different phases inflammatory phase, proliferative phase, remodeling phase of wound healing are described in Fig. Blood-borne cells—neutrophils, macrophages, and platelets—play crucial roles during the coagulation and inflammatory phases A of the healing. These cells provide the growth factors and interim matrices required for the recruitment into the wound bed of epidermal and dermal cells.

The proliferative process B starts around 3 days after injury and is characterized by increased rates of proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix ECM synthesis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in response to autocrine, juxtracrine, and paracrine growth factors.

The tissue has a granular texture granulation tissue , due to the involvement of blood vessels. Eventually, inside the granulation tissue, differentiated fibroblastic cells myofibroblasts begin to remodel the extracellular matrix at about 1 to 2 weeks after injury.

Extracellular matrix remodeling accompanied by resident cell apoptosis leads to an acellular scar formation [ 17 , 18 ]. Medicinal plants and their metabolites used in the treatment of different types of wounds are depicted in Table 1. Different phases of wound healing adapted from reference [ 16 ].

For more than years, Egyptians, indigenous peoples of Africa, Asia, Romans, and the Americas have used medicinal plants as first-line therapy for inflammation, burns, ulcers, and surgical wounds. They contain many natural bioactive compounds that help fasten the process of wound healing and regenerate tissue at the wound site.

Some examples of medicinal plants and their wound healing effects are listed below [ 50 ]. This was also known as Asian pennywort, used to facilitate healing of wounds.

To facilitate the healing of the chronic ulcers in terms of their distance, depth, and scale, extracts from the Centella asiatica aerial sections are reported. Asiaticoside isolated from the Centella asiatica has been shown to promote epithelialization and collagen deposition in a punch type wound.

Centella asiatica isolated triterpenes improve collagen remodeling and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans. In addition, it has been shown that oral administration of madecassoside from Centella asiatica promotes collagen synthesis and angiogenesis at the wound site [ 51 ].

Curcumin has been used as a remedy and as a food seasoning for many years, being an active agent found in the Curcuma longa root and a member of the ginger tribe. Curcumin is used by conventional Ayurvedic medicine practitioners to treat asthma, respiratory diseases, liver disorders, diabetes, and skin injury [ 52 ].

Curcumin is a popular remedy in traditional Chinese medicine for stomach pain. Curcumin has been commonly used for decades by different ethnic groups and are among the most widely studied nutraceuticals. A highly pleiotropically molecule has been shown to interact at transcription, translation, and post-translation levels with key cellular pathways.

Proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, NF-yB, cyclooxygenase 2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E2, cell adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, β-transforming growth factor, triglycerides, ET-1, creatinine, heme oxygenase-1, AST, and ALT are found in the goal pathways.

Experimental findings from various in vivo trials and in vitro tests show that by altering the pericellular and extracellular matrix, curcumin produces much of its beneficial effects. It may not be surprising, therefore, that curcumin stimulates fibroblast proliferation, the development of granulation tissue and the deposition of collagen in the healing of cutaneous wounds [ 53 ].

Extracts of alcohol from the Wedelia trilobata leaves have been used to treat rheumatism, persistent wounds and sore arthritic joints. Luteolin, a flavonoid in the leaves, has been shown to contribute to Wedelia trilobata medicinal benefit, conferring neuroprotective, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities.

Traditional healers treat skin wounds using the Wedelia trilobata leaves. Luteolin inhibits the expression of NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory cytokines, a characteristic feature of skin infection and psoriasis.

In a study designed to validate this traditional use, Balekar et al. Specific subfractions were found to support fibroblast viability, proliferation, and migration. Different subfractions were also found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Aloe vera comprises of many natural bioactive compounds, including basic and complex such as glycosides, polysaccharides, saponins, pyrocatechol, anthraquinones, acemannan, phytol, oleic acid, and water-soluble polysaccharides.

Acetone extracts from Aloe vera leaves show greater antimicrobial activity than that of alcohol and aqueous extracts. Aloe vera tends to be more susceptible to gram-positive bacterial species than gram-negative species.

Saponins, acemannan, and anthraquinone derivatives are compounds with a proven antimicrobial activity. Acemannan, a large Aloe vera mucopolysaccharide mesoglycan , is an effective stimulator for the operation of macrophages and T cells and induces the transcription of proinflammatory mRNAs including IL-1af, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-af, PGE2, and nitrous oxide.

Mesoglycan moieties bind and absorb endogenous mitogenic inhibitors and species of reactive oxygen, which promote phagocytosis. Coincidentally, glycans stabilize, prolonging their function, the secreted cytokines, growth factors, and other bioactives [ 39 , 55 ].

This, generally referred to as burdock, is a commonly grown perennial weed. Arctium lappa is used in the treatment of sore throats and skin pathologies such as boils, rashes, and acne in North America, Europe, and Asia.

In a clinical trial, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antiviral, anti-cancer, and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa were detected. It has been shown that Arctium lappa root extract greatly enhances dermal ECM metabolism, affects glycosaminoglycan turnover and decreases visible in vivo wrinkles in human skin.

In China, Japan, Korea, and Eastern Siberia, it is one of the most popular medicinal plants consumed. It is also assumed that recollection increases immunity and physical agility and reduces fatigue.

Therefore, Panax ginseng is used to cure depression, anxiety, and chronic fatigue disorders. It has been shown that Panax ginseng causes vasodilatation, controls blood lipids, decreases inflammation, and confers antioxidant, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-allergic, anti-aging, and immunomodulatory capacity [ 58 ].

Panax ginseng comprises many bioactive compounds, of which the most potent active constituent of Panax ginseng is a family of saponins called ginsenosides by Asian researchers and panaxosides by Russian scientists. Panax ginseng root extracts have been shown to protect the skin from acute UVB irradiation and significantly improve healing following laser burning and excisional wound injury.

Studies indicate that extracts of Panax ginseng strengthen keratinocyte migration and induce proliferation and in vitro increase collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts.

In wound dressing, it was well known as anti-ulcer, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antioxidant. Viji et al. The biocomposite film has good anti-inflammatory activity and nitric oxide scavenging activity. In further tests, the authors performed the antioxidant activities and the biocompatibility test using the neem-incorporated collagen film RAW Researchers examined the capacity for electrospinning four different plant extracts, namely, A.

Indica , Indigofera aspalathoides , Memecylon edule ME , PCL for skin tissue engineering, and Myristica andamanica. A cell proliferation test was used to determine the capacity of human dermal fibroblasts HDFs to live on nanofibrous scaffolds, and F-actin and collagen staining evaluated the relationship between HDF and scaffolds.

The proliferation of HDF on M from the experiments was apprehensible. The PCL integrated by Edule was the lowest of all and was 31 percent higher than PCL nanofibers after 9 days. Edule-incorporated PCL had better cell density, and sufficient cell to cell contact was verified by F-stain analysis.

Collagen staining showed that the extracellular matrix ECM was secreted by the cells in M. Edule-incorporated PCL. Edule extract containing nanofibers has also served as a slot for stem cells that supports epidermal differentiation markers found by separating epidermal lines from human adipose derived stem cells ADSC [ 61 ].

Therapy qualities C. Recutita L. Rauschert, a member of the Asteraceae family, is present because of specific phenolics and flavonoids, apigenin, quercetin, patuletin, luteolin, and their glucosides. Apigenin is the rarest flavonoid in chamomile flora and has a remarkable effect on the wound healing process.

aureuas , and C. Albicans fungi with inhibitory zones approximately 7. MTT assay demonstrated the adhesion of in vitro cells and the viability of mesenchymal stem cells on the nanofibers.

The nanofibers, according to the authors with 15 percent chamomile extract, up to 99 ± This wound examination showed the accretion of reepithelization and collagen in the dermis tissue, and also the absence of necrosis [ 62 ].

Phillip Roy et al. The dressing consists of an alginate fiber sheet with honey completely impregnated into the fiber sheet. As a result, the dressing has porous surfaces and the dressing becomes gel-like when the exudate gets absorbed upon application to the wound.

This patent includes 11 claims describing how honey is impregnated into the dressings. It can be used for treating acute as well as chronic wounds. Michael Koganov et al. The bioactive fraction from theacea plants shows anti-inflammatory action on the skin and normalizing skin damage or tissue injury.

Suresh Balkrishna et al. Parveen Walia et al. Curcumin particles and tulsi extracts are used to further improve their properties with herbal medicinal principles and to have a synergistic impact with all the ingredients working together to provide better results for healing.

This includes 27 claims and 6 drawing sheets shows testing on different wounds. The invention shows novel synergism and effective composition of herbs as a regenerative medicine. This also offers a preparation method for the herbal composition.

Another scientist, Melikoglu et al. For the preparation, a solution or gel composed of poly hexamethylene biguanide as an anti-microbial agent and poloxamer as an emulsifier and a product includes at least one herbal ingredient Comfrey Symphytum officinale L.

Kerri-Anne et al. This comprises of Gotu kola Centella asiatica , Figwot scrophularia nodosa , yarrow Achillea millefolium , Plantago major, and Echinacea purpurea.

The formulation has both anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. It was found particularly effective as a synergistic healing agent in the treatment of wounds, prevention of scar formation, and promotion of hair regrowth in the wound area.

It was also found suitable for the treatment of general skin disorders in humans including eczema and nappy rash. Kenneth A. et al. The product comprises a composition or formulation mixture of buckwheat honey and bacitracin. In one unique embodiment, the composition is gelled.

Dinesh Upendra et al. Mikolaj Tomulewicz et al. The herbal preparation is distinguished by the fact that the preparation includes emulsified or suspended Melittis melissophyllum L.

organic medium extract. Milind Omkar et al. The Wakeri fortification comprises oil extract of root bark powder of Wakeri being a component in the Kampillakadi oil. Kampillakadi oil being a medicinal oil comprising oil extract of Vavding, Kutaj, Kapilla, Trifala, Patolpatra, Bala, Nimsal, Lodhra, Nagarmotha, Charolya, Khadirsal, Dhayatiphul, Agaru, and Chandanadded with Sarjaras.

The invention also includes a composition comprising Wakeri-fortified Kampillakadi oil for topical application; the compositions comprise a a tulle, b an ointment, c a liniment, d a capsule, e a wound healing spray, f a cream, and g a gel.

The invention pertains to wound healing properties of Wakeri Wagatea spicata Dalzell Wight synonym of Moullava spicata Dalzell Nicolson with Kampillakadi Tailam CHARAK SAMHITA CHIKITSA STHANAM. Table 3 enlists various plant constituent based patented technologies for wound healing applications.

Wound healing from ancient times remains a challenging clinical issue for effective wound treatment. Wound healing involves multiple populations of cells, the extracellular matrix and the action of soluble mediators like growth factors and cytokines.

Much research has been centered on wound care, with emphasis on new therapeutic methods and the advancement of acute and chronic wound treatment techniques in Ayurveda herbal.

With the advent of nanotechnology and availability of novel materials, wound management is becoming more effective and patient-centric. Newer technologies like 3D printing are also providing advantageous options for developing different drug delivery systems for managing wounds.

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicines are the futuristic view of technologies for developing wound healing systems. Better quality control techniques for identification, screening, and quantification herbal components along with well-designed pre-clinical and clinical studies will open new research gateways in wound care management.

Mukherjee K, Rajesh Kumar M Evaluation of wound healing activity of some herbal formulations Published online in Wiley. Inter Sci — Article Google Scholar.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD Indian medicinal plants, Int Plants.

Open access peer-reviewed chapter. Submitted: 05 April Reviewed: herrbs July Published: 10 May com customercare cbspd. Wouund Wound healing herbs process is known as interdependent cellular Wound healing herbs herhs stages Mindful movement are in trying to improve the wound. Wound healing can be defined as stages which is done by body and delayed in wound healing increases chance of microbial infection. Improved wound healing process can be performed by shortening the time needed for healing or lowering the inappropriate happens. The drugs were locally or systemically administrated in order to help wound healing. Medicinal plants have Woundd an important therapeutic role throughout healingg. Records of herbal Healign date Wounc 5, years and document the Caloric needs for digestive health of ethnobotanical therapies from regional availability Increases mental concentration plants and trade commerce to highly berbs medical practice. Wund such as Herbbs and Traditional Chinese Medicine use herbs extensively and are established facets of healthcare in India and China, respectively. In Europe and the United States, herbalism declined in the early s as the pharmaceutical industry expanded. Today, uneasiness with drug side effects along with the desire for natural options has catalyzed a resurgence in herbal use. As scientific research validates efficacy, interest and use continue to rise. This article provides wound care professionals a review of the common herbs patients may report taking and important facts to keep in mind, such as drug interactions and side effects.

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6 Herbs for Wound Healing - Vulnerary Herbs

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