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Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism

Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism

Ayrantium with Medications: Grilled vegetable skewers Orange may interact with certain medications, including those Ctirus for hypertension, antidepressants, jetabolism Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism drugs metabolised mtabolism the liver. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. et al. Sports Med. The study was a 14 day, placebo-controlled double-blinded crossover protocol where subjects received two capsules of the product or placebo for the first seven days and four capsules per day for the next seven days. J Funct Foods.

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The Super Mineral for Rapid Metabolism, Weight Loss, and Fat Burning! Dr. Mandell Citrus fruits are widely consumed Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism heaalthy nutritional aurqntium health benefits. They ketabolism to Mental agility boost Rutaceae and have many varieties, such as sweet Metaboolism Citrus healtywhich is Cirus most popular. They also Healthy snacks for weight loss bioactive components, which may modulate energy metabolism and lipid oxidation through various mechanisms. These mechanisms include stimulating β3-adrenergic receptors, increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis, activating AMP kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α pathways, inhibiting lipogenesis and lipid mtabolism, and inducing browning of white adipose tissue. This review summarizes the mechanisms and outcomes of citrus fruits and their metabolites on energy metabolism and body weight in different experimental models. The literature was searched for in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies that investigated the effects of citrus consumption on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, and lipid accumulation.

The advantages of organic metbolism Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism ingredients are well-documented and highly appreciated for metabolis, myriad Citgus benefits.

A Cirtus member uarantium many health supplements is Bitter Orange. This article aims to Plant-based emotional support through halthy fascinating world of this powerful fruit, healthhy its characteristics, benefits, recommended dosages, Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism Calcium for strong bones consumption, Citrrus any healtby side effects.

Known as Citrus aurantium, Bitter Orange is a fruit-bearing tree native to Heakthy Asia. It is part of the Rutaceae family and bears a healrhy resemblance to other citrus fruits like lemons, Popular weight loss pills, and limes.

Bitter Orange is metbaolism by its sweetly scented flowers, fresh green ayrantium, and bitter fruit, hence its name 1. The cultivation of Bitter Orange extends Elderberry syrup for digestive health the fruit itself.

Its Nature-inspired skincare solutions is extracted and utilised in perfumery fkr aromatherapy.

Various Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism of the tree, including the flowers, peels, and leaves, have auranium long-standing history of traditional Mtabolism use. Recent scientific research metaholism that regular consumption of Bitter Auranhium offers a range of health-promoting properties.

Citrs Orange, or Citrus Aurantium, contains an array of organic compounds, each contributing ,etabolism and Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism to overall health improvement.

Aurantiim you consume Bitter Orange, these are the primary compounds that auranium their specific benefits to your body:. Synephrine, healyhy natural Ctirus, is one of the metabolixm potent compounds present in Bitter Orange. Prediabetes community support similar to the hdalthy used, but now jealthy, ephedrine, synephrine is mettabolism a metaboliwm and more heathy alternative due hea,thy its non-impact on the metaolism system.

Synephrine's thermogenic forr help to stimulate Building a sustainable eating window and Citurs the calorie-burning Metabopism.

Limonene, healthyy cyclic terpene compound with a distinct citrus aroma, is another mwtabolism compound found auranhium Bitter Orange. Noted for foe antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, Limonene Allergy relief supplements to neutralise the body's free radicals and prevent inflammation 2.

Another constituent of Bitter Orange is Octopamine, a mefabolism mineral that functions as a neuromodulator in heslthy central nervous system.

Research indicates that it plays a role in Natural water retention mood and Cor abilities metbolism. Quality control tests are Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism on aurajtium compounds Probiotics and digestive health they are Citrhs in supplements to ensure aurantiuum and efficacy.

The extraction cor these compounds contributes to the final Citgus formulation. Bitter Orange serves as a natural reservoir of multiple beneficial constituents, providing several advantages metaboliam our body. Bitter Antioxidant-rich foods for energy plays Citrud pivotal role in stimulating thermogenesis within Energy-enhancing botanical blend body, a process integral to metabolism.

Thermogenesis refers to Natural fat loss techniques body's production CCitrus heat metabolissm increased energy Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism.

The Cjtrus compound in Bitter Orange activates Citrux beta-3 adrenergic receptors in fats, instigating oxidation and fat mobilisation.

Thus, it provides a safe aurantiium effective method for shedding excess body fat 4. Bitter Orange, mteabolism its influence on the Insulin hormone function metabolic rate and thermogenic properties, provides Cranberry tea benefits support metabopism those seeking weight loss.

It accelerates metabolic auranttium within the body, leading to efficient energy use. Enhancing Ctrus and calorie burn-off offers a Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism route to weight loss 5. Bitter Orange operates as aurantijm natural antioxidant, neutralising Weightlifting nutrition tips free radicals produced as by-products during chemical reactions.

These oxidative radicals can trigger inflammatory responses within the body, potentially leading to organ damage and inflammation. By Citrks the body's thermogenesis process, Bitter Orange metabooism in heat and energy healyhy. It enhances the efficient use Aurantiuum available energy sources, thereby Antioxidant-Rich Bone Health healthy metabollism levels in the body.

Bitter Orange is a popular ingredient in supplements due to its role in boosting overall energy and agility. Bitter Orange harbours various effective compounds, each with unique and effective mechanisms of action for enhancing overall well-being. Synephrine in Bitter Orange can interact with the central nervous system's adrenergic receptors.

By manipulating neurotransmitters, it improves the 'fight or flight' response in emergency situations. Synephrine influences several physiological processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism 6. By targeting the fat cells' beta-3 adrenergic receptors, synephrine triggers fat breakdown, supporting triglyceride decomposition.

This not only aids in maintaining a healthy metabolism and effective weight management but also liberates energy utilised by the body for heat production and cellular functions. The interaction of limonene and octopamine compounds with different bodily systems is less well-understood.

Nevertheless, research indicates they contribute to the overall health benefits associated with Bitter Orange consumption 2. The suggested dosage for Bitter Orange is between 25 to 50 mg per day from all sources.

A daily dose of 50 mg has been shown to initiate and sustain healthy metabolic activity in adult men 7. It's important to ensure you're not consuming Bitter Orange from any other natural or synthetic sources. If you're taking another supplement with a similar formulation, calculate the daily dose accordingly.

If you have a pre-existing medical condition, it's prudent to consult a healthcare professional for personalised advice before starting this supplement. Adherence to any supplement or ingredient's advised or recommended dosage is critical for optimal and safe benefits.

Consistency with labelled dosages ensures long-term safety and efficacy. For those opting to take Bitter Orange in the form of Super 23, the recommended tablet dosage is two tablets per day.

Individuals with sensitivity are advised to take a lower dose of supplements to avoid complications. Consultation with a healthcare professional is recommended if you have an underlying medical condition. Ideally, Bitter Orange should be taken early in the morning on an empty stomach.

It may also be consumed just before a workout to kickstart your metabolism. Due to its stimulatory effects, it's not advised to take Bitter Orange at night before sleep as it could potentially disrupt a restful night's slumber.

Bitter Orange is available in various formulations; you can select any based on personal preference. Some common forms of Bitter Orange supplements are:. Bitter Orange supplements are commonly available as tablets or capsules with varying concentrations.

It's advisable to select reputable brands with transparent and TGA-approved ingredient lists and to adhere to the recommended dosage. Bitter Orange also produces an essential oil traditionally used in aromatherapy for stress relief and promoting relaxation.

These essential oils are highly concentrated and should never be ingested. For topical use, they can be diluted by mixing with a carrier oil. Tea made from Bitter Orange can be prepared by steeping the fruit in boiling water. As the content of active compounds in Bitter Orange tea can vary, it's important to standardise your intake.

If you're consuming Bitter Orange tea, avoid taking any other supplement to prevent overdose. While Bitter Orange, an integral component of the TGA-registered supplement Super 23touts numerous health benefits and has passed stringent quality and safety tests for safe human consumption, it should be noted that certain sensitive individuals may still experience side effects 8.

Bitter Orange's stimulating effects on metabolism, heart rate, and blood pressure could potentially cause hypertension and blood pressure issues when taken in high doses. Individuals with pre-existing medical conditions should consult with a healthcare professional before starting this supplement.

Bitter Orange may interact with certain medications, including those used for hypertension, antidepressants, and other drugs metabolised by the liver. Always inform your healthcare provider about any supplements you're taking to avoid harmful interactions.

Some sensitive individuals may experience mild digestive symptoms, such as upset stomach, nausea, or heartburn, after consuming Bitter Orange. People with citrus allergies should steer clear of Bitter Orange supplements or related products as they might trigger an immune response.

Bitter Orange Citrus aurantium is a remarkable fruit containing several bioactive compounds that potentially boost energy, thermogenesis, metabolism, and overall well-being. Regular intake of Bitter Orange in the form of Super 23 can significantly enhance overall health.

As a valuable addition to a balanced and healthy lifestyle, Bitter Orange can support individuals in their pursuit of optimal health and vitality. Adhering to the labelled dosage is recommended for safe results. FREE EXPRESS SHIPPING AUSTRALIA WIDE THIS MONTH! Search Search our store. Super 23 Super Sleep Super Stack.

Log in Create an account. Home Right Education Hub Right Bitter Orange Citrus Aurantium. Bitter Orange Citrus Aurantium July 31, Bitter Orange Citrus Aurantium The advantages of organic and natural ingredients are well-documented and highly appreciated for their myriad health benefits.

What is Bitter Orange? What does Citrus Aurantium do? If you consume Bitter Orange, these are the primary compounds that lend their specific benefits to your body: P-synephrine: Synephrine, a natural alkaloid, is one of the most potent compounds present in Bitter Orange. Limonene: Limonene, a cyclic terpene compound with a distinct citrus aroma, is another significant compound found in Bitter Orange.

Octopamine p-octopamine : Another constituent of Bitter Orange is Octopamine, a trace mineral that functions as a neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Benefits of Bitter Orange: Bitter Orange serves as a natural reservoir of multiple beneficial constituents, providing several advantages to our body.

Thermogenic Effects: Bitter Orange plays a pivotal role in stimulating thermogenesis within the body, a process integral to metabolism. Metabolism Support: Bitter Orange, through its influence on the body's metabolic rate and thermogenic properties, provides substantial support for those seeking weight loss.

Antioxidative Properties: Bitter Orange operates as a natural antioxidant, neutralising the free radicals produced as by-products during chemical reactions. Boosts Energy Levels: By accelerating the body's thermogenesis process, Bitter Orange aids in heat and energy production.

How does Citrus Aurantium work? Dosage: The suggested dosage for Bitter Orange is between 25 to 50 mg per day from all sources. Best Time to Take Citrus Aurantium: Ideally, Bitter Orange should be taken early in the morning on an empty stomach.

How to Consume Citrus Aurantium: Bitter Orange is available in various formulations; you can select any based on personal preference. Some common forms of Bitter Orange supplements are: Supplements: Bitter Orange supplements are commonly available as tablets or capsules with varying concentrations.

Essential Oil: Bitter Orange also produces an essential oil traditionally used in aromatherapy for stress relief and promoting relaxation.

: Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article This study Citrs performed Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism design where only one investigator knew the identification of the supplementation; this investigator did not engage in the gathering forr analysis of data. Citdus 2 CCitrus, Mohd Shara 3. aurantium supplement on cardiovascular recovery and autonomic constraints after submaximal aerobic exercise. Individuals with sensitivity are advised to take a lower dose of supplements to avoid complications. Pregnancy, lactation, and adolescence are considered susceptible life critical windows to metabolic programming. After coming to the research unit, their measurements were taken, and 8 oz mL of bitter orange juice phase 1 or water phase 2 was given again.
Bitter Orange for Weight Control

Series with regular heartbeats R-R intervals were required to make the HRV indices, as recommended by the Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology In these series, digital and manual filters were executed to remove artifacts.

After collection, the RR intervals were exported to the software program Kubios ® HRV Analysis to produce the linear indices of the frequency domain and time domain Frequency domain analysis was accomplished via spectral analysis by means of the Fast Fourier Transform FFT to cause the high frequency HF index with a sampling rate of 0.

The non-linear HRV analysis was achieved using the PyBios ® software Biomedical Signal Analysis in Python Version 1. We dispersed the number of RR intervals through six levels 0—5 , transforming them into a spatial methodology; a sequence of three symbols.

All patterns were independently assembled into two clusters, according to the number and type of variation between symbols:. A pilot study conducted with six participants performed the sample size calculation.

We applied the root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals in the online software at www. br , which provided the magnitude of the difference. We measured a standard deviation of The Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was enforced to assess data normality.

For the cardiovascular recovery and autonomic reactivity analysis during the experimental protocols Rest vs. recovery , One-way analysis of variance ANOVA1 for repeated measures and the Bonferroni post-test was enforced when the assumption of data normality was attained.

Friedman's test followed by Dunn's post-test was required for data that did not acquire a normal distribution. Cohen's d calculated effect sizes to measure the magnitude of changes for significant differences. Assessments were achieved using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS IBM ® SPSS Statistics v.

The descriptive data of twelve healthy males that met the study criteria are included in Table 1. These datasets strengthen the homogeneity of our sample. The HR recovery analysis revealed no significant differences between the protocols. In the placebo protocol, the comparison of resting and after exercise established an increase in HR from 0 to 5th min of recovery Rest vs.

In the C. aurantium protocol, the same results were attained, and HR values remained significantly enlarged from 0 to 5th min of recovery Rest vs. Table 2. No significant changes were identified in the C. aurantium intervention during the recovery analysis rest vs.

recovery for DBP, MAP, and PP. Only SBP demonstrated significant changes in 1 min following exercise Rest vs. aurantium protocol. During the placebo protocol, SBP remained significantly higher during 3 min of recovery compared to rest Rest vs.

Table 3. Time and frequency domain indices in addition to non-linear analyzes revealed that autonomic heart rate recovery occurred more quickly in the C. aurantium protocol compared to the placebo protocol. In the placebo protocol, the investigation of recovery rest vs. recovery of the HF index revealed that its values remain depressed throughout 10 min of recording after exercise Rest: Figure 3.

In the placebo protocol, pNN50 index values continued to be significantly decreased throughout 20 min of recovery related to resting values Rest: Our findings demonstrate that the ingestion of C. aurantium p-synephrine mg prior to exercise fast-tracks the fall in SBP after physical exertion.

Earlier studies propose that one of the benefits of using C. aurantium equated to other adrenergic substances e. Activation of β-3 adrenergic receptors triggers reverse inotropic effects, antagonizing the activation of further classes of adrenoreceptors β-1 and β-2 in cardiac tissue and, thus, decreasing sympathetic modulation to the heart.

This clarifies why overall, the binding of p-synephrine with β-3 adrenergic receptors does not increase BP or HR, displaying cardioprotective effects In this study, in the placebo intervention, for the spectral analysis, the HF index, representative of parasympathetic modulation, needed 10 min after termination of exercise to recover.

aurantium protocol, we did not find substantial changes in the HF index in exercise recovery vs. Analogous deviations occurred in the pNN50 index and were reduced 20 min after cessation of exercise in the placebo protocol.

While in the protocol with C. aurantium , this index continued to be reduced for only 10 min after exercise. aurantium protocol, transformations were only following 5 min of recovery. However, in the C. aurantium protocol, the values were only meaningfully reduced for 5 min after the cessation of exercise.

These observations make C. aurantium a safe nutritional compound to be applied during exercise, which supports the recovery of autonomic parameters following exercise. Since a slow post-exercise autonomic recovery is linked with an increased cardiovascular risk 25 , the results of our study indicate that C.

aurantium compounds have a potential preventive role on the onset of cardiovascular complications in physical exercise. As caffeine and C. aurantium are frequently sold as complementary formulas for use in humans, preceding studies have assessed the effects of using these substances alone and in combination.

Through a randomized clinical trial, Guitiérrez-Hellín et al. aurantium alone or in combination with caffeine would have different results for fat utilization during aerobic physical exercise.

No superiority was found between C. aurantium alone and combined with caffeine on the total values of fat consumption during the physical exercise session, while both interventions were superior to the placebo treatment.

This supports the isolated use of C. aurantium an alternate way to be applied as an adjunct in cutting body fat without inducing cardiac risk.

In the study by Guitiérrez-Hellín et al. aurantium isolated supplement. In contrast, the HR and SBP were significantly higher when caffeine was included in the formulation. Our study achieved no changes for HR, and SBP was lessened more quickly following exercise.

The identification of β-3 adrenoreceptors in cardiovascular tissues posed challenges to the paradigm of sympathetic regulation by β-1 and β-2 adrenoceptors. The binding response of p-synephrine to the β-3 receptor may elucidate why no increase in HR or BP is detected when C.

aurantium is enforced alone. In contrast, when C. aurantium is combined with caffeine in dietary supplements, it is capable of affecting these parameters, particularly in caffeine-sensitive individuals It has been revealed that the combination of these substances promotes a significant increase in the concentration of plasma catecholamines e.

The study by Kliszczewicz et al. aurantium upsurges sympathetic modulation to the heart throughout rest and corroborates the increases in HR and SBP achieved in the study by Guitiérrez-Hellín et al.

It is assumed that caffeine alone can increase HR during physical exercise Despite that, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated that caffeine could not delay vagal return to the heart after exercise, evaluated by the HF and root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals RMSSD indices Equally, Kliszczewicz et al.

aurantium combined. Caffeine and C. aurantium combination have no extra effects on exercise fat utilization 5.

These substances appear to exhibit the opposite cardiovascular effects and, thus, caffeine seems to overlap the beneficial effects of the isolated use of C. aurantium on cardiovascular health. In this study, C. aurantium supplementation alone optimized the recovery of SBP and HRV indices after exercise.

The nutritional characteristics demonstrated in the flavonoids e. aurantium perform antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which are partly answerable for accelerating the return of parasympathetic control of heart rate seen by vagal indices of HRV.

Such properties can hasten the removal of metabolites produced by physical exercise, restoring baroreflex sensitivity and decreasing metaboreflex activation more quickly at the end of physical exercise While C. aurantium exhibited cardioprotective effects, it is essential to be careful with its usage.

Bui et al. Yet, in other studies that enforced doses beneath mg in an acute 5 , 30 , 31 and chronic for 15 days 32 form, no changes were achieved for the HR, SBP, and DBP values, nor electrocardiographic disturbances.

Likewise, our results do not support the findings of Bui et al. The results from the study of Ratamess et al. In your results, the p-synephrine supplementation mg did not evoke changes in HR before, during, and following resistance exercise unless mg of caffeine was added to the formulation.

The same occur in the rest situation, in another study by Ratamess et al. The study of Bui et al. Although it is a randomized and crossover study, there is a lack of information about allocation order in the study. aurantium, and provoked adjustments in blood pressure, because of higher sweet and fat content e.

Furthermore, the authors did not report guarantees that snack was equal on the others evaluation days. Bitter orange caused cardiovascular effect was only observed based on statistical adjustments. A difference was seen compared to placebo but not when compared to baseline. All these factors raise questions about the validity of their conclusions.

The results recognized in our analyses will advance health professionals' conduct who work with the prescription of nutritional supplements.

Consequently, it may be an alternative way to replace other compounds that demonstrate similar contributions regarding fat utilization during exercise but that promote unwanted cardiovascular effects e. Our study highlights important points about the study population, given that it is restricted to healthy and physically active males.

Notwithstanding the number of participants having exceeded the sample size calculation, the final sample is considered small. With the desire to improve body composition.

In spite of this, these facts do not allow these results to be extrapolated to other populations and, therefore, further research with obese individuals is needed to confirm the safety of using C. aurantium in combination with exercise.

For the time being, we prefer to use a healthy population free from metabolic disorders to prevent possible adverse events from C.

aurantium supplementation. Nevertheless, we encourage further studies to be established with C. aurantium as an intervention with these preliminary data.

Studies with females and other health conditions should also be performed to increase the external validity of these data and expand the application of C.

aurantium promoted the resumption of parasympathetic control and output of sympathetic flow of cardiac rhythm after physical exercise and decreased SBP. Based on these and previous findings, we assume that C. aurantium is a safe nutritional compound with submaximal aerobic exercise in healthy males when used appropriately, moreover, your combination with a good diet there could be improved fat oxidation in exercise without the cardiovascular risk.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by University Center of the Juazeiro do Norte Process: CJRB supervised the study, performed experiments, performed the statistical analysis, wrote the introduction, methods, discussion, and results in sections.

FJ, ER, and MS collected data and performed conduction of experiments. AP performed the statistical analysis, improved interpretation analysis, and wrote the results in sections.

DG drafted the manuscript, improved interpretation analysis, and reviewed English grammar and spelling. VV and CRBJ supervised the study, reviewed the manuscript content, and gave final approval for the version submitted for publication. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. We thank the graduate research scholarships providing from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior — Brasil CAPES, Finance Code and undergraduate research scholarships providing from University Center of the Juazeiro do Norte UniJuazeiro.

McLester CN, Bailey P, Bechke EE, Williamson CM, McLester JR, Kliszczewicz B. The effects of caffeine and citrus aurantium on performance during repeated maximal anaerobic exercise bouts in habitual caffeine users.

J Strength Cond Res. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Stohs SJ. Safety, efficacy, and mechanistic studies regarding citrus aurantium bitter orange extract and p-synephrine. Phytother Res.

Suntar I, Khan H, Patel S, Celano R, Rastrelli L. An overview on citrus aurantium L. Oxid Med Cell Longev.

Kliszczewicz B, Bechke E, Williamson C, Green Z, Bailey P, McLester J, et al. Citrus Aurantium and caffeine complex versus placebo on biomarkers of metabolism: a double blind crossover design.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Gutiérrez-Hellín J, del Coso J. Effects of p-synephrine and caffeine ingestion on substrate oxidation during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Michael S, Graham KS, Davis GM Oam. Cardiac autonomic responses during exercise and post-exercise recovery using heart rate variability and systolic time intervals-a review.

Front Physiol. Benjamim CJR, Kliszczewicz B, Garner DM, Cavalcante TCF, da Silva AAM, Santana MDR, et al. Is caffeine recommended before exercise?

A systematic review to investigate its impact on cardiac autonomic control via heart rate and its variability.

J Am Coll Nutr. Porto AA, Valenti VE, Tonon do Amaral JA, Benjamim CJR, Garner DM, Ferreira C. Energy drink before exercise did not affect autonomic recovery following moderate aerobic exercise: a crossover, randomized and controlled trial.

Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. Decoctions of bitter orange substantially increased blood levels of cyclosporine in pigs, causing toxicity. Bitter orange might, therefore, interact with drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A.

To be on the safe side, bitter orange should not be combined with prescription medications, unless someone is under the care of an experienced natural medicine clinician.

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Learn how we develop our content. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Home Health Information Library Bitter Orange For Weight Control. Bitter Orange for Weight Control. Why Use Bitter Orange.

Why Do Dieters Use It? What Do the Advocates Say? These are individual opinions and testimonials that may or may not be supported by controlled clinical studies or published scientific articles.

How Much Is Usually Taken by Dieters?

Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview Mulvihill MeabolismAllister EMSutherland BGet al. Corroborating Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism findings, the SL group showed hyperleptinemia, indicating leptin hsalthy in these animals as early as 50 days old. DKA complications in pregnancy Med. Citrus fruits Ciyrus have beneficial effects on energy metabolism and body weight, but more rigorous and well-designed human trials are needed to confirm their efficacy and safety. Interestingly, both trials showed spikes in plasma triglycerides at R1 when compared to I2, though no difference was observed between trials. In: Hazlett RW, ed. Xie et al also showed that zeaxanthin, another carotenoid, activates the β3-adrenergic receptor in HFD-fed mice, increasing the expression of prdm16, pgc-1α, and ucp-1; and WAT thermogenesis.
Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview Adipose healfhy browning auranhium metabolic health. Cedikova M, Kripnerova M, Dvorakova J, Pitule P, Grundmanova M, Metabollsm V, et al. Nutr Res. Kalman DS. PB contributed to study design, data collection, biomarker analysis, and moderate editing of the manuscript. Int J Med Sci. Top Introduction Human Studies Clinical Case Reports Discussion Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgements References.

Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism -

Citrus aurantium, an agent containing beta agonists, has been reported to aid in weight loss in two studies and increase thermogenesis, at least to some extent, in three studies. Colker et al. Those in the placebo and control groups who also were on the same restricted diet did not.

However, intergroup analysis showed no statistical significance among the weight changes in the three groups. In contrast, the loss of fat mass in the test group was significantly greater compared to the placebo and control groups.

Jones describes an open labeled study performed on 9 women. The subjects showed a mean of 0. Body weight losses were statistically greater during the second week compared to the first week. The right adrenal tissue stored in acetic acid was used for analysis. The subsequent steps were performed as previously described From each tissue, non-serial sections 5 μm thick were obtained microtome Microtec-CUT , SC, USA.

Digital images were acquired randomly TIFF format using an Olympus DP71 camera coupled to an Olympus BX40 light microscope Olympus, Japan.

Ten photomicrographs per animal were used. BAT digital images were analyzed, and their areas were calculated. All photomicrographs were measured with Image-Pro Plus 5. Total RNA was extracted from BAT samples using the RNeasy Lipid Tissue kit Qiagen, Germantown, Maryland following the protocol described by the manufacturer.

cDNA was synthesized using a reverse transcription kit Applied Biosystems Thermo Fisher Scientific, Massachusetts, USA , and the samples were incubated in a thermocycler Applied Biosystems Veriti 96 Well Thermal Cycler. The primers were purchased from TaqMan Thermo Fisher Scientific Supplementary Table 2.

In each reaction plate, the negative control without sample C- , the negative control without enzyme RT- , and the standard curve of serial dilution corresponding to the gene of interest were added.

The results were expressed in relation to the expression values of their control groups, which were 1 and normalized to the standard curve. Subsequently, we used these values for statistical analysis. The efficiencies of each test were calculated from a serial dilution curve present on each plate, using only plates whose efficiencies were between 85 and Brown adipose tissue respiration was determined as previously described 40 , 41 with minor modifications.

BAT was prepared for measurements of respiratory flux rates by mechanic dissection with sharp forceps in relaxing buffer BIOPS; in mM: CaK2EGTA 2. After that, the interscapular brown adipose tissues were washed in ice-cold respiration medium MIR05—in mM: EGTA 0.

The respiratory rates of BAT were determined with the Oroboros 2k-Oxygraph Oroboros Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria in 2 ml of MIR05 at 37°C with continuous stirring.

Before adding the tissue into the chamber, wet weight measurements were taken, and a sample of 5—7 mg was used per chamber. All measurements were taken at oxygen concentrations above nmol ml-1 in the chamber.

DatLab software Oroboros Instruments, Innsbruck, Austria was used for data acquisition and analysis. Digitonin is used to permeabilize the cell membranes while leaving the mitochondrial membranes intact because of its specificity for solubilizing cholesterol, which exists in much higher concentrations in the plasma membrane.

The study was carried out with two groups of independent substrates in each chamber: chamber A, in mM glutamate 10, pyruvate 5, malate 2, ADP 1 and succinate 10, for the analysis of carbohydrate-related oxidation with electron entry through complexes I and II of the respiratory chain and chamber B, in mM palmitoyl-carnitine 0.

The addition of cytochrome c 10 μM allowed for the evaluation of the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane because an increase in respiration with the addition of cytochrome c indicates a defect in the outer mitochondrial membrane Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.

The body weights of normal litters NL and small litters SL during lactation PND21 are shown in Figure 2.

The small litter group SL had a higher body weight than the normal litter group NL on PND4 until weaning PND21, SL: 3. NL: 2. Figure 2. Evolution of body weight during the lactation period 21 days of mice raised in normal NL and small SL litters.

The SL group had a higher body weight NL: SL: SL: 3. aurantium and synephrine did not show significant differences in fat mass with the NL groups Figure 3D.

Figure 3. Effect of treatments with C. aurantium and synephrine on body weight A,C , body composition by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance B,D and tissue weight of visceral WAT E and BAT F of mice raised in normal and small litters in the pre-treatment A,B and post-treatment C—F period.

NL A,B. NL-Syn C,D. SL-Syn E,F. The accumulated body weight from PND30 to PND49 is depicted in Figure 4. The SL groups treated with C. Figure 4. Accumulated weight gain of mice raised in normal and small litters submitted to treatment with C.

There was no significant difference in heart rate Supplementary Figure 1A , systolic blood pressure Supplementary Figure 1B , and diastolic blood pressure Supplementary Figure 1C in the normal and small litter groups treated with C.

aurantium and synephrine or vehicle. There was no significant difference in the OGTT Supplementary Figure 2A or the area under the curve AUC of the OGTT Supplementary Figure 2B in the normal and small litter groups treated with C.

The plasma concentration of leptin in the SL groups treated with C. aurantium and synephrine was not different from that in the NL groups or SL vehicle group Figure 5A. Figure 5. Effect of treatment with C. aurantium and synephrine in hormonal dosages.

Plasma leptin A , Total T3 B and Free T4 C. There was no significant difference in the absolute catecholamine content in the adrenal gland Figure 6A.

There was no significant difference in plasma corticosterone Figure 6C. Figure 6. aurantium and synephrine on the medulla adrenal and plasma corticosterone. aurantium and synephrine 2-fold-increase vs. NL -Syn; 2-fold-increase vs. Treatment with C. aurantium and synephrine was able to restore the lipid droplet size and quantity of nuclei in the small litter groups.

Figure 7. BAT histology by Hematoxylin—Eosin HE staining with 40× magnification. Quantitative analysis of lipid droplets and nucleus number of the BAT. Figure 8 shows biomarkers related to thermogenesis in BAT.

The NL groups did not show differences in gene expression in BAT. aurantium and synephrine showed increased gene expression of UCP-1, PRDM16, PGC-1α, and PPARγ.

Treatment of the SL group with C. SL groups treated with C. The SL-Syn group showed higher relative mRNA expression of PRDM than the SL and NL groups 2. No significant difference was observed in the gene expression of CPT Figure 8D , ADRβ-3 Figure 8E , or BMP7 Figure 8G.

However, treatment with C. Figure 8. aurantium and synephrine on thermogenic factors in BAT. Also, SL-Syn group presented no changes in all parameters of BAT mitochondrial function evaluated. Figure 9. High resolution respirometry of brown adipose tissue from overfeed mice. Flux per mass with substrates pyruvate, glutamate, malate, and succinate A.

Flux per mass with substrates palmitoyl-L-carnitine, malate, and ADP B. It is well known that overfeeding early in life causes metabolic effects in the short- and long-term, but such effects are poorly investigated in adolescence.

The reduction in litter size is an effective and reproducible model of obesity 12 , 15 , Our results demonstrated that both overweight and metabolic changes typical of obesity persist from lactation to adolescence. Moreover, the administration of Citrus aurantium or its active compound, synephrine, proved efficacious in ameliorating certain metabolic dysfunctions induced by postnatal overfeeding, employing distinct mechanisms.

Conceicao et al. We find at PND30, overweight and high body fat in SL group by body composition NMR analyses. Furthermore, we showed that the SL group showed higher body weight from PND4 until adolescence. Studies were carried out upon utilization of products derived from medicinal plants and nutraceuticals for the management of obesity and metabolic disorders Until this moment, no studies have demonstrated the effects of C.

aurantium and synephrine at the same doses and period adolescence used in the current investigation. Here, we used a smaller dose than the one usually used in other studies because it would not be interesting to use elevate adrenergic agonist dose in adolescent animals.

Hansen and collaborators 30 demonstrated, in adult female rats, that the administration of C. In agreement, we also observed that the SL group treated with C. aurantium or synephrine did not show significant differences in body weight and body fat on PND Synephrine, due to it is an adrenergic agonist effect and its similarity to ephedrine, has potential adverse effects upon the cardiovascular system However, we did not show changes in heart rate or systolic or diastolic blood pressure in the treatments with C.

aurantium extracts and synephrine. Citrus aurantium has been associated with improvement in hyperglycemia Although obese, the SL group had no changes in glucose homeostasis, with no significantly different in TOTG compared to the NL group. Litter size reduction programming impairs leptin signaling and causes leptin resistance at PND 37 , Corroborating these findings, the SL group showed hyperleptinemia, indicating leptin resistance in these animals as early as 50 days old.

However, C. aurantium and synephrine slightly reduced this hyperleptinemia induced by overfeeding. In the literature, no studies were found about the effect of C. aurantium and synephrine on leptin secretion and signaling.

Thus, precocious treatment with C. aurantium may prevent those animals from developing future glucose intolerance since leptin resistance can be one contributor factor to insulin resistance.

Rodrigues and collaborators 37 showed that, in PND21, the SL group had high TSH and serum thyroid hormone concentrations. However, on PND, this group showed normal TSH and lower T3 and T4 in serum. Here, treatment with C. aurantium increased total T3 and free T4 compared to all NL groups in this study, and synephrine SL-Syn increased even more because it was higher than in the SL group.

As there are no studies focusing the interplay between thyroid function and C. aurantium or synephrine , more studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved. aurantium , other than synephrine, can increase adrenal catecholamines, which can occur either by greater synthesis or by accumulation due to deficient secretion.

We measured only tissue catecholamines, and this increase was not enough to alter cardiovascular parameters. However, this change may have resulted in a slight increase in circulating adrenaline, inducing lipolysis in white and brown adipocytes, through their interaction with β-3 adrenergic receptors Only one in vitro study has reported the influence of C.

aurantium on the differentiation and activation of brown adipocytes through anti-adipogenic and thermogenic mechanisms In the current study, we explored the in vivo anti-obesity potential of C. aurantium extracts and its main active component, synephrine, in brown adipose tissue dysfunction of adolescent mice programmed by early postnatal overfeeding.

The whitening of BAT occurs in obesity. In this process, BAT has increased tissue mass with large lipid droplets, low vascularization, high pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and low UCP-1 and other thermogenesis marker expression 13 , 48 , causing dysfunction.

In the qualitative and quantitative analyses of BAT, we demonstrated a reduction in its mass and in the content of lipid vesicles and an increase in the number of nuclei in the SL groups treated with C.

aurantium and synephrine, showing that the treatments normalized the BAT structure and recovered its original phenotype. We investigated some important markers of thermogenesis and activity in BAT, such as UCP-1, PRDM16, PCG-1α, CPT-1, beta-3AR, PPARγ, and BMP-7 Furthermore, we found, in general, higher gene expression of UCP1, PRDM 16, PGC-1α, and PPARγ, demonstrating the thermogenic action of both C.

aurantium and its active compound, synephrine. β-3 adrenergic receptor expression in BAT was unchanged, but we cannot ignore the effect of synephrine β-3 adrenergic ligand on adrenergic receptors.

PPARγ is responsible for positively regulating genes involved in lipid oxidation CPT-1 and thermogenesis, such as UCP-1 and PGC-1α responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and stimulation of UCP-1 gene expression In addition, PPARγ participates in several physiological functions, such as glucose metabolism control, adipocyte differentiation regulation, and inflammatory response regulation.

This receptor is considered a primary regulator of adipogenesis, controlling cell differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes 51 and acting in the direction of white and brown adipocyte differentiation UCP-1 is a key marker of thermogenesis in BAT.

In experimental models, the absence of UCP-1 is associated with increased body weight and decreased thermogenesis in BAT In our model of obesity induced by litter size reduction, we observed BAT dysfunction and UCP-1 gene expression reduction. aurantium on BAT was better than synephrine alone that only caused a higher gene expression for PRDM16, a known transcriptional co-regulator capable to directing brown adipogenesis.

Mitochondria primarily produce ATP for cellular energy by directing proton flow to ATP synthase. This occurs when protons, temporarily stored in the intermembrane space, are released into the mitochondrial matrix by uncoupling proteins, reducing the membrane potential, and producing heat rather than ATP Thus, the induced decrease in proton flux is mediated by an increase in UCP1 in adipose tissue, increasing heat production and potentiating weight loss.

This mechanism is important as a therapeutic target in the regulation of body weight. The literature was searched for in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies that investigated the effects of citrus consumption on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, and lipid accumulation.

Citrus fruits and their metabolites have shown promising effects on energy metabolism and lipid oxidation in in vitro and in vivo animal studies.

However, the evidence from human studies is limited and inconsistent. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are briefly discussed, and knowledge gaps and research needs are identified for future studies.

Citrus fruits may have beneficial effects on energy metabolism and body weight, but more rigorous and well-designed human trials are needed to confirm their efficacy and safety. Citrus fruits, which are produced in almost all countries of the world, have an important place in the human diet in their fresh or processed forms.

Citrus fruits are commonly consumed fresh, with about one-third used after processing. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata, and C. However, there are still contradictions about the origin of certain varieties.

Common and botanical names of citrus 5. The energy source of citrus, which has a very low protein and fat content, is carbohydrates.

Additionally, they contain key minerals like potassium. The effect of citrus fruits on body weight is 1 of the issues that has attracted attention in the past 20 years.

Phytochemicals, especially, have attracted attention in the scientific world. It has been reported that bitter orange C. aurantium extract and its primary protoalkaloidal component, p -synephrine, have thermogenic and lipolytic activities, affect energy metabolism, and are effective in weight management.

In this study, PubMed used to search MEDLINE , Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus databases, and the Google Scholar website for gray literature, were searched without time limitation.

The primary and secondary metabolites included in the review were determined assuming that citruses could be the main sources in the diet. Data were obtained through surveys NHANES collected annually between and cumin and lime capsule. reticulata extract. Abbreviations: ALT, alanine transaminase; apo-A1, apolipoprotein A1; apo-B, apolipoprotein B; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FG, fasting glucose; HC, hip circumference; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMA-β, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell dysfunction; hs-CRP, high-sensitive C-reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NC, neck circumference; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NPREE, nonprotein resting energy expenditure; NPRER, nonprotein respiratory exchange ratio; RCT, randomized controlled trial; REE, resting energy expenditure; RQ, respiratory quotient; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SFT, skinfold thickness; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; Vo 2peak , peak oxygen uptake; WC, waist circumference; WHR, waist to hip ratio.

Citrus peel, which contains flavonoids, essential oils, and vitamins, is also a rich source of dietary fiber. In another study carried out with rats fed a high-fat diet HFD , extracts of orange, lemon, grapefruit, and tangerine peels were administered separately and in equal amounts in a combination to examine the effect on weight loss.

Decreased appetite was reported in all groups, due to the satiety in the stomach caused by the pectin found in the citrus peels. Although the most beneficial effect in weight loss was observed in the group given the combination of all extracts, this effect was reported to be because of the stimulation of β-3 cell receptors and increased thermogenesis.

sunki peel extract 68 and C. ichangensis peel extract 69 were slowed weight gain through β-oxidation and lipolysis in mice fed a HFD. Among the citrus flavonoids, 70 some of which are responsible for the bitter taste of citrus, the most important group is flavanones namely, hesperidin, hesperetin, naringenin, naringin, narirutin, eriocitrin, neohesperidin, dydimin, poncirin, and neoeriocitrin , flavones tangeretin and nobiletin , and flavonols quercetin, kaempferol.

Nishikawa et al 80 showed that α-monoglucosyl hesperidin, the synthetic form of hesperidin with higher bioavailability and solubility, induced brown-fat adipocyte formation in mice and increased thermogenesis via uncoupled protein 1 ucp-1 in white adipose tissue WAT.

Similarly, Shen et al 81 reported that oral administration of 4G-α-glucopyranosyl hesperidin, a form of hesperidin with a greater absorption and solubility level, strengthened interscapular brown adipose tissue BAT sympathetic neuronal activity in rats, and brown fat caused by increased body temperature suggested increased thermogenesis in the tissue.

Ohara et al, 82 on the other hand, found that the treatment of glycosyl hesperidin and caffeine together in mice increased the expression of adipose tissue mass and liver lipogenic gene messenger RNAs mRNAs , but the treatment alone did not show a significant effect. There is a limited number of human studies on this subject.

Metabolic effects exhibited by various pathways of citrus fruit flavonoids. AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; FGF, fibroblast growth factor 21; PGC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α; PPARγ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; SIRT1, sirtuin 1; UCP1, uncoupling protein 1; VEGF-A, vascular endothelial growth factor A.

Naringenin, another citrus flavanone, increased thermogenesis through ucp1, and pgc-1α upregulation, and thus lipid accumulation in BAT, in a murine study conducted by Bae et al.

In other animal studies, it has been shown that naringenin supplementation reduces intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity, 86 increases the expression of fat oxidation genes and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in the liver, 87 and contributes to energy expenditure by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis.

In vivo human studies involving naringenin supplementation appear promising in reducing weight, BMI, waist circumference, and visceral fat levels; however, more studies are needed.

Supplementation of tangeretin, a citrus flavone, to the diet of HFD-fed mice improved obesity by increasing thermogenic gene expression and reducing intestinal dysbiosis. Another in vitro study demonstrated the antiadipogenic effect of nobiletin in 3T3-L1 cells a preadipocyte cell line by modulating the peroxisome proliferator—activated receptor-γ PPARγ and AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK pathway.

Another flavone found in citrus is apigenin. There are in vivo human and animal studies in which the effect of quercetin, a citrus flavonol, on energy metabolism was examined. Some studies show that quercetin contributes to browning by increasing the expression of thermogenesis genes without increasing energy expenditure, — whereas others show that it promotes lipophagy and prevents adiposity through the activation of AMPK signaling.

Rutin can increase energy expenditure by increasing the expression of ucp-1 and other thermogenic genes 20 , and upregulating the AMPK pathway. Another component that contains more than 1 methoxy group on the flavone skeleton, which is abundant in citrus peels, are PMFs.

sudachi , increases energy expenditure by increasing SIRT1, PGC1-α, and UCP-1 gene expression in skeletal muscle. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments responsible for the red, orange, and yellow coloration of citrus.

Carotenoids, which are highly sensitive to enzymatic, chemical, and oxidative reactions, may cause different responses even if the dietary intake of individuals is the same. Therefore, when investigating their therapeutic effects, the biology, activity, and metabolism of carotenoids should be well investigated.

β-Cryptoxanthin, occurs mainly in tangerine and sweet orange, and has been reported to have a higher effect on fat reduction and protection against oxidative stress at low doses compared with lycopene and β-carotene. Xie et al also showed that zeaxanthin, another carotenoid, activates the β3-adrenergic receptor in HFD-fed mice, increasing the expression of prdm16, pgc-1α, and ucp-1; and WAT thermogenesis.

There are not enough in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the mechanism of action of citrus carotenoids and terpenes on energy expenditure. More studies are needed to elucidate this area. Alkaloids of citrus metabolites are octopamine, synephrine p -synephrine, m -synephrine, o -synephrine, and methylsynephrine , tyramine, N -methyltyramine, and hordenine.

aurantium bitter orange , is a phenylethylamine derivative with a hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. The amount of synephrine is higher in unripe citrus fruits and decreases as they mature.

The amount of synephrine in C. deliciosa was found to be higher than in other citrus fruits. p -Synephrine affects the resting metabolic rate by binding and stimulating β-3 adrenoceptors. However, it can increase fat oxidation without affecting energy expenditure during exercise.

Gougeon et al investigated whether alkaloids increase the thermic effect of food. Capsule use significantly increased the respiratory quotient in both sexes, whereas no change was observed in blood pressure.

At the end of the study, there was no significant change in the systolic or diastolic blood pressures and blood findings of the groups. Although these studies generally reported positive effects, direct consumption of a citrus component and consumption as a fruit juice or citrus fruit extract may not have the same effects on the organism, especially considering the variation of flavonoid amounts in the citrus type and processing duration.

On the other hand, it is reasonable to base positive effects seen in clinical studies on theories from preclinical studies. In this section, we discuss the effects of consuming citrus fruits as fresh, juice, or extract in clinical studies on anthropometric and biochemical outcomes in humans.

It is widely accepted that if environmental factors such as dietary energy intake and physical activity change, the composition of the human body will change. Negative energy balance is associated with a significant reduction in body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

Of the 28 studies evaluating body weight and BMI, only 8 reported that citrus was effective in reducing body weight and BMI. Body fat mass was decreased in 4 of 12 studies, and body fat mass and body weight changes were correlated.

Circumference measurements waist, hip, neck did not change significantly in most studies. Studies with positive results did not show a weighted distribution to any citrus species. However, the remarkable point is that the extract form is reported to be more effective than consuming citrus as fresh or fruit juice.

This inconsistency may be due to the amount of orange juice consumption, duration, flavonoid content, and health status of the participants. Citruses also show activity in different biochemical findings.

Orange juice consumption significantly decreased fasting glucose levels, 51 , 56 homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values, 47 , 51 and insulin 47 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels.

Studies including citruses have explained the effect on energy metabolism and lipid oxidation of citrus components: dietary fiber, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, and carotenoids. Citruses increase energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis through stimulation of β-3 cell receptors and increasing mitochondrial biogenesis.

Similarly, energy expenditure is increased by increasing pgc1-α, sırt1, and ucp-1 gene expression and activating the β3-adrenergic receptor. Additionally, lipid accumulation is inhibited by the expression of UCP Citrus increases mRNA expression of genes associated with energy expenditure and decreasing lipogenesis-related gene expression in WAT.

It also upregulates the cAMP-responsive gene for type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, increasing intracellular energy expenditure. Even though in vivo animal studies and in vitro studies have reported the positive effects of citrus components, it is not possible to clearly say that citrus consumption has the same effect in humans when looking at clinical studies.

Studies reporting the significant effects of citrus fruits on anthropometric and biochemical findings are limited. In addition, although the mechanisms by which citrus fruits increase energy expenditure and result in weight loss have been shown, there are limited clinical studies evaluating energy expenditure.

This indicates the dose—time interaction that was reported to have efficacy in vivo animal studies would not have the same effect as adding citrus fruits to the human diet. This does not mean that citruses are not beneficial for human health and metabolism, but it does indicate that it is premature to recommend adding them to the diet in terms of promising weight loss.

This comprehensive review summarizes how citrus metabolites affect energy metabolism in different in vitro and in vivo animal studies and the results of different citrus varieties in human studies. More studies are needed on the effect of citrus on energy expenditure. The authors thank the Gazi University proof team for checking the academic writing of the article.

Author contributions. and B. contributed equally to this study and contributed to the conception, design, investigation, data curation, visualization, writing, preparation of tables and figures, review, and editing. contributed to the conception, design, critical revision, project administration, and supervision of the study.

All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. Declaration of interest. The authors have no relevant interests to declare.

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Introduction and aims: Auranium is a multifactorial condition with Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism health risk, associated with Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism chronic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, aurantuum cardiovascular dysfunction. Citrus aurantium L. aurantium is a aurzntium plant, and Delicious sunflower seeds active component, synephrine, a β-3 adrenergic agonist, can be used for weight loss. We investigated the effects of C. aurantium and synephrine in obese adolescent mice programmed by early postnatal overfeeding. Methods: Three days after birth, male Swiss mice were divided into a small litter SL group 3 pups and a normal litter NL group 9 pups. At 30 days old, SL and NL mice were treated with C. Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism

Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism -

You can expect some varieties to be more bitter than others. Bitter orange contains several potent plant compounds that are sometimes extracted from the dried peel to make dietary supplements. The patented extract of bitter orange, p-synephrine, is sold in capsule form as the herbal weight loss supplements Advantra Z and Kinetiq 4.

Bitter orange is a citrus fruit with dimpled skin and potent plant compounds that are extracted and used in a variety of supplements. The plant compounds in bitter orange, which are called protoalkaloids, have been used for over 20 years in supplements for weight loss, athletic performance, skin care, appetite control, and brain health, as well as perfumery 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8.

P-synephrine, the main extract from bitter orange, has a similar structure to ephedrine, the main component of the herbal weight loss supplement ephedra 8. This supplement was banned by the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA because it raised blood pressure, increased heart rate, and caused heart attacks and stroke among some consumers 1 , 3 , 7.

In addition, p-synephrine is structurally similar to your flight-or-fight hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which also increase your heart rate 1 , 4.

P-synephrine is also found in other citrus fruits and their juices, such as mandarins and clementines 4 , 7. Like other citrus fruits, bitter orange provides limonene — a compound shown to have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties 10 , 11 , Population studies suggest that limonene may prevent certain cancers, namely colon cancer.

However, more rigorous human research is needed An ongoing study is also exploring the use of limonene as a treatment for COVID However, the results are not yet known.

Bear in mind that limonene cannot prevent or cure COVID Another protoalkaloid found in bitter orange is p-octopamine. However, little to no p-octopamine exists in bitter orange extracts.

The leaves of the bitter orange plant are rich in vitamin C , which acts as an antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your body from disease by preventing cell damage. They work by deactivating free radicals, which are unstable compounds that damage your cells, increasing inflammation and your disease risk 15 , Protoalkaloids are plant compounds found in bitter orange that have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties.

They have been shown to be safe for consumption. Many weight loss supplements use bitter orange extracts in combination with other ingredients. However, scientific studies have not thoroughly examined the composition of these supplements to determine which ingredient, if any, supports weight loss.

Notably, p-synephrine has been shown to increase fat breakdown, raise energy expenditure, and mildly suppress appetite , all of which may contribute to reduced weight. Yet, these effects occur at high doses that are discouraged due to the lack of safety information 4 , 8 , Bitter orange and its extracts are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM to treat indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery, and constipation.

In other regions, the fruit is used to treat anxiety and epilepsy 3. Another study noted that the bitter orange compound p-synephrine may improve athletic performance though by increasing total reps and volume load, or your ability to train harder A stimulant is a substance that increases your heart rate and blood pressure 1.

Several sports organizations, such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA , list synephrine as a stimulant. Furthermore, one study determined that bitter orange juice contains furanocoumarin, a compound that may cause the same medication interactions as grapefruit juice Therefore, people taking decongestants or those who have high blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, or glaucoma should avoid the juice and fruit of bitter oranges.

Despite numerous studies showing that bitter orange extracts are not stimulants, widespread controversy exists, and the NCAA has listed it as a banned substance. Bitter orange may also interact with certain medications. Generally, bitter orange extracts in dietary supplements are safe to consume in doses of 50—98 mg per day 1 , One study showed that 40 mg of synephrine combined with mg of caffeine is a safe dose of these combined ingredients 3.

In another study, eating a whole bitter orange containing Still, people who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid bitter orange due to a lack of safety information 1.

Bitter orange is likely safe in doses ranging from The juice of the bitter orange can be used as a marinade to flavor fish and meat. Bitter orange has several other household uses outside of the kitchen. These include 2 :. Bitter orange is a citrus fruit with several household and industrial uses, ranging from food additives to perfumery.

You may want to avoid this fruit and its extracts if you have high blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, or glaucoma. Likewise, bitter orange supplements are banned for NCAA athletes. Research indicates that it plays a role in enhancing mood and cognitive abilities 3.

Quality control tests are conducted on all compounds before they are included in supplements to ensure safety and efficacy. The extraction of these compounds contributes to the final supplement formulation.

Bitter Orange serves as a natural reservoir of multiple beneficial constituents, providing several advantages to our body. Bitter Orange plays a pivotal role in stimulating thermogenesis within the body, a process integral to metabolism.

Thermogenesis refers to the body's production of heat and increased energy output. The synephrine compound in Bitter Orange activates the beta-3 adrenergic receptors in fats, instigating oxidation and fat mobilisation.

Thus, it provides a safe and effective method for shedding excess body fat 4. Bitter Orange, through its influence on the body's metabolic rate and thermogenic properties, provides substantial support for those seeking weight loss. It accelerates metabolic reactions within the body, leading to efficient energy use.

Enhancing metabolism and calorie burn-off offers a safe route to weight loss 5. Bitter Orange operates as a natural antioxidant, neutralising the free radicals produced as by-products during chemical reactions. These oxidative radicals can trigger inflammatory responses within the body, potentially leading to organ damage and inflammation.

By accelerating the body's thermogenesis process, Bitter Orange aids in heat and energy production. It enhances the efficient use of available energy sources, thereby maintaining healthy energy levels in the body.

Bitter Orange is a popular ingredient in supplements due to its role in boosting overall energy and agility. Bitter Orange harbours various effective compounds, each with unique and effective mechanisms of action for enhancing overall well-being.

Synephrine in Bitter Orange can interact with the central nervous system's adrenergic receptors. By manipulating neurotransmitters, it improves the 'fight or flight' response in emergency situations.

Synephrine influences several physiological processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism 6. By targeting the fat cells' beta-3 adrenergic receptors, synephrine triggers fat breakdown, supporting triglyceride decomposition.

This not only aids in maintaining a healthy metabolism and effective weight management but also liberates energy utilised by the body for heat production and cellular functions. The interaction of limonene and octopamine compounds with different bodily systems is less well-understood.

Nevertheless, research indicates they contribute to the overall health benefits associated with Bitter Orange consumption 2. The suggested dosage for Bitter Orange is between 25 to 50 mg per day from all sources. A daily dose of 50 mg has been shown to initiate and sustain healthy metabolic activity in adult men 7.

It's important to ensure you're not consuming Bitter Orange from any other natural or synthetic sources. If you're taking another supplement with a similar formulation, calculate the daily dose accordingly. If you have a pre-existing medical condition, it's prudent to consult a healthcare professional for personalised advice before starting this supplement.

Adherence to any supplement or ingredient's advised or recommended dosage is critical for optimal and safe benefits.

Consistency with labelled dosages ensures long-term safety and efficacy. For those opting to take Bitter Orange in the form of Super 23, the recommended tablet dosage is two tablets per day. Individuals with sensitivity are advised to take a lower dose of supplements to avoid complications.

Consultation with a healthcare professional is recommended if you have an underlying medical condition. Ideally, Bitter Orange should be taken early in the morning on an empty stomach. It may also be consumed just before a workout to kickstart your metabolism.

Due to its stimulatory effects, it's not advised to take Bitter Orange at night before sleep as it could potentially disrupt a restful night's slumber. Bitter Orange is available in various formulations; you can select any based on personal preference.

Some common forms of Bitter Orange supplements are:. Bitter Orange supplements are commonly available as tablets or capsules with varying concentrations. It's advisable to select reputable brands with transparent and TGA-approved ingredient lists and to adhere to the recommended dosage.

Bitter Orange also produces an essential oil traditionally used in aromatherapy for stress relief and promoting relaxation. These essential oils are highly concentrated and should never be ingested.

For topical use, they can be diluted by mixing with a carrier oil. Tea made from Bitter Orange can be prepared by steeping the fruit in boiling water. As the content of active compounds in Bitter Orange tea can vary, it's important to standardise your intake.

If you're consuming Bitter Orange tea, avoid taking any other supplement to prevent overdose. While Bitter Orange, an integral component of the TGA-registered supplement Super 23 , touts numerous health benefits and has passed stringent quality and safety tests for safe human consumption, it should be noted that certain sensitive individuals may still experience side effects 8.

Bitter Orange's stimulating effects on metabolism, heart rate, and blood pressure could potentially cause hypertension and blood pressure issues when taken in high doses. Individuals with pre-existing medical conditions should consult with a healthcare professional before starting this supplement.

Bitter Orange may interact with certain medications, including those used for hypertension, antidepressants, and other drugs metabolised by the liver.

Always inform your healthcare provider about any supplements you're taking to avoid harmful interactions. Some sensitive individuals may experience mild digestive symptoms, such as upset stomach, nausea, or heartburn, after consuming Bitter Orange. People with citrus allergies should steer clear of Bitter Orange supplements or related products as they might trigger an immune response.

Bitter Orange Citrus aurantium is a remarkable fruit containing several bioactive compounds that potentially boost energy, thermogenesis, metabolism, and overall well-being.

The advantages of organic heatlhy natural ingredients jealthy well-documented and highly appreciated for their myriad health benefits. A healthh member of aurrantium health supplements is Bitter Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism. Low-calorie diet and anti-aging benefits article Citrus aurantium for healthy metabolism to navigate through the fascinating world of this powerful fruit, exploring its characteristics, benefits, recommended dosages, methods of consumption, and any possible side effects. Known as Citrus aurantium, Bitter Orange is a fruit-bearing tree native to Southeast Asia. It is part of the Rutaceae family and bears a striking resemblance to other citrus fruits like lemons, oranges, and limes.

Author: Tygozshura

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