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Nutritional deficiencies

Nutritional deficiencies

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If Dficiencies are diligent Nutrutional brushing and flossing daily and your gums defidiencies still red, swollen and Nutfitional, you might need Nutrihional boost your vitamin C Nutritiona. Another sign might be Nuritional you bruise easily. Nutrittional fact, vitamin C has many powers, including serving as an anti-inflammatory and as an antioxidant to limit damage to cells.

First and foremost: If you smoke, take steps to quit. Among its many negative effects on your health, smoking limits your body's ability to absorb vitamin C. Also, eat more fruits and vegetables high in vitamin C, including kiwi, red bell peppers and, of course, oranges.

Healthy adults should get 60 mg of vitamin C each day. For adults, the RDA of vitamin D is IU IU for adults age 71 and older. Foods rich in vitamin D include salmon, herring, sardines, canned tuna, oysters, shrimp and mushrooms. Or, choose cow's milk, soy milk, orange juice, oatmeal and cereals that are fortified with vitamin D.

You can also get your daily dose by going out into the sunshine for 10 minutes without sunscreen if you're going to be outdoors longer than that, make sure to put that sunscreen on to protect against potentially damaging UV rays.

Unlike other vitamins and minerals, vitamin D levels are regularly tested in routine blood tests at your annual physical, so it's easy to identify deficiencies. Calcium-rich foods include as salmon and sardines both of which are also excellent sources of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acidsbroccoli and bok choi.

And, of course, dairy products — including skim milk, and nonfat or lowfat yogurt. Try swapping one daily sugary beverage soda, juice, coffee concoctions, etc. for an 8 oz. glass of milk. And keep a few yogurts in the fridge at home or work for midday snacks.

You can also use the milk and yogurt to make homemade smoothies, with fresh or frozen berries. If you don't take in enough vitamin A, your night vision and the sharpness of your sight could deteriorate over time.

If you notice changes in your vision, schedule a visit with your ophthalmologistwho will examine the back of your eye. In addition to annual check-ups with your primary care doctor, see your eye doctor annually — and don't hesitate to go sooner if you start experiencing blurriness or trouble with your night vision.

Graham also recommends a diet rich in vitamin A, including milk, eggs, mangos, black-eyed peas, sweet potatoes and apricots. Aim for mcg of vitamin A each day if you're a man, mcg if you're a woman. Simple blood tests can reveal your levels of vitamins and minerals.

However, the routine blood work at your annual physical doesn't typically include most of these tests. Often the treatment for these deficiencies is fairly simple, so the key is identifying them. Signs you may be missing key vitamins and minerals, and how to reverse deficiencies.

Home RUSH Stories 6 Signs of Nutrient Deficiency. Share to Facebook Share to Twitter Share to LinkedIn Share via Email. Severe hair loss While everyone loses about strands of hair a day, suddenly finding clumps of hair on your pillow or in your shower drain merits a mention to your doctor.

Reversing iron deficiency The good news is you can eliminate an iron deficiency with supplements. Burning sensation in the feet or tongue "If you're experiencing this, it should definitely sound an alarm," Graham says. Calcium regulates your heartbeat. So a deficiency could cause an arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat, and even lead to chest pains.

Wounds are slow to heal If you are diligent about brushing and flossing daily and your gums are still red, swollen and bleed, you might need to boost your vitamin C intake. It pulls the cells together and makes wounds heal," Graham says.

Boosting vitamin C First and foremost: If you smoke, take steps to quit. Bone pain If you are feeling pains in your bones, you might be deficient in vitamin D.

Treating vitamin D deficiency For adults, the RDA of vitamin D is IU IU for adults age 71 and older. For severe deficiencies, your doctor might prescribe a vitamin D supplement.

Irregular heartbeat "Calcium regulates your heartbeat," Graham says. Calcium works with muscles to help them contract properly. Muscle cramps. Without enough calcium, the muscles do not fully relax. Calcium is needed for strong bones.

Without it, bone loss, or osteoporosiscan lead to more fractures. How to get more calcium Adults should receive 1, mg of calcium each day from food sources and supplements. Your night vision deteriorates If you don't take in enough vitamin A, your night vision and the sharpness of your sight could deteriorate over time.

Achieving an "A" In addition to annual check-ups with your primary care doctor, see your eye doctor annually — and don't hesitate to go sooner if you start experiencing blurriness or trouble with your night vision.

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: Nutritional deficiencies

Deficiency Symptoms and Signs

In moderate form, this is limited to night blindness, but in severe cases, it can become permanent. In the map, we see the prevalence of night blindness in pregnant women. Compared to the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, these figures are lower — not all cases of deficiency result in night blindness.

The prevalence of night blindness in most countries is low. However, several countries across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia record much higher rates. In the map, we see the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children under the age of 5, during the period from to Prevalence rates are typically highest across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia — over half of children in many countries in these regions are deficient.

By , the prevalence across Central Europe and Latin America is lower than in Africa and Asia, but still with a sizeable share of children deficient for vitamin A. In the map, we see the prevalence of night blindness in children younger than 5 years old over the period — The prevalence of night blindness is under 1 percent in many countries, but is much higher in some countries in central Africa and central Asia.

Zinc is an essential nutrient for the immune system, and is used to make DNA and protein in our body. It is found in whole grains, beans, fortified cereals, meat, fish, poultry, and seafood. Zinc is needed for growth and recovery, and deficiencies can therefore stunt growth, increase susceptibility to disease and infection, and impair recovery, and is associated with higher mortality in mothers and newborns.

Zinc deficiency can have several negative health consequences that affect many parts of the body, including the central nervous system, the skeleton, the digestive system, the immune system, and other systems.

Globally, zinc deficiency is very common — particularly in lower-income countries where diets are cereal-dominant and typically lower in protein. Zinc deficiency is prevalent in men, women, and children — in contrast to anemia, which is much more common in women.

In the chart below, we see the prevalence of zinc deficiency across the whole population. In many high-income countries, under ten percent of the population have zinc deficiency.

Across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, the prevalence is much higher, with a sizable share of the population in many countries being deficient. Since there are a range of micronutrient deficiencies and nutritional outcomes we can measure, it is difficult to distill the severity of micro-malnutrition into a single measure.

One metric that has been developed to indicate the severity of this is the Global Hidden Hunger Index GHHI. Note that the terms 'hidden hunger' and 'micronutrient deficiency' are often used interchangeably. The GHHI is most commonly used to assess the nutritional status of preschool children under the age of five.

The GHHI is calculated as the average of three nutritional indicators in preschool children: the prevalence of stunting children who are too short for their age , anemia, and vitamin A deficiency.

In the map, we see national GHHI values during the period between and The remaining countries in these regions typically fall within the 'moderate-to-severe' range. If micronutrient requirements cannot be met through dietary intake alone — for example, if households do not have access to, or cannot afford, the dietary diversity required to meet micronutrient requirements — then three other strategies can be used to address deficiencies.

These are supplementation, food fortification, and biofortification. As covered earlier in this topic page, children under the age of 5 are typically the most vulnerable to vitamin A deficiency. Many countries try to tackle this issue by providing vitamin A supplements to children, in the form of high-dose capsules several times per year.

In the map, we see the coverage rate of vitamin A supplementation in children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Vitamin A supplementation is defined as being sufficient if a child receives at least two high-dose capsules per year.

Vitamin A supplementation is relatively common in many countries in Africa and South Asia, although some countries still have low rates of supplementation. Iodine deficiency is a major cause of preventable brain damage in childhood. It can result in stillbirths and the deaths of young infants, mental disability, and thyroid impairments.

In the mids, the world committed to ending global iodine deficiency. Iodine deficiency results from diets low in iodine, which is more common in places where soils have low iodine content, which reduces iodine concentrations in crops generally.

Iodine deficiency is therefore hard to address simply through dietary diversification. The global solution to addressing deficiency has been through Universal Salt Iodization USI programs. Salt is used as a delivery device for iodine for several reasons: it is widely consumed and has little seasonal variation, it is typically distributed from a few centralized production centers, it has little impact on the taste or texture of foods, and it is cheap.

Since the WHO and UNICEF recommended Universal Salt Iodization to address iodine deficiency, the world has made significant progress. Many countries have eliminated iodine deficiency as a public health issue.

But in some poor countries countries, iodine deficiency remains a health challenge. In the map, we see the share of households consuming iodized salt from Overall, we see that in many countries, a large share of the population consumes iodized salt. Micronutrient deficiency can exacerbate existing diseases and illnesses, such as diarrheal diseases.

Around half a million children die annually from diarrheal diseases, which is more severe in children who are malnourished.

Malnutrition can exacerbate the risk of death from diarrhea. In addition, diarrhea affects the ability of children to retain and use nutrients sufficiently, which increases the requirements for nutrient intake. Treating diarrheal disease is therefore an important global health issue.

The map below shows the share of children under the age of 5 who received diarrheal treatment in the form of oral rehydration salts. Micronutrient-rich foods include fruit and vegetables, meat and dairy, pulses, seafood, nuts and seeds.

In contrast, cereal, root, and tuber commodities tend to be energy-dense but are micronutrient-poor. In the chart, you can see the hidden hunger index in children versus the share of dietary energy attained through the consumption of cereals, roots, and tubers.

Overall, we see that countries where diets are higher in micronutrient-poor cereals also tend to have higher levels of micronutrient deficiency. The chart shows the Hidden Hunger Index in preschool children versus gross domestic product GDP per capita, measured in constant international dollars.

Overall, we see that countries with lower GDP per capita experience more severe deficiency and malnutrition issues in children.

This is also true of other deficiency measures such as the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age. Why is micronutrient deficiency more prominent among people of lower incomes? Since cereals tend to be less expensive than other food commodities, poorer households tend to have a more monotonous and energy-dense diet that is lacking in the dietary diversity required to meet micronutrient requirements.

In contrast, richer households are more able to afford a diverse range of micronutrient-rich foods to supplement staple food items. Read more:. A healthy, nutritious diet is much more expensive than a calorie sufficient one.

As a result, three billion people cannot afford a healthy diet. Stevens, G. Micronutrient deficiencies among preschool-aged children and women of reproductive age worldwide: A pooled analysis of individual-level data from population-representative surveys.

The Lancet Global Health, 10 11 , e—e The global prevalence of anemia in Geneva: World Health Organization; Available online. National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplements. Vitamin A and Carotenoids — Fact Sheet.

Nutritional deficiencies are usually caused by a poor diet or something that impairs nutrient absorption, such as a disease or medication. Either of these can lead to a deficiency on their own or in combination. Bariatric surgery to reduce the size of the stomach can also contribute to a lack of vitamins and minerals in the diet.

This is because the surgery restricts the amount of food you can eat, making it harder to consume enough essential nutrients. The best way to avoid nutritional deficiencies is by eating a well-balanced diet. Focus on the following foods to help boost vitamin and mineral intake:. Some people may also require daily supplements to meet their nutritional needs.

Patients who complete bariatric surgery also usually require daily supplements. Work with a doctor or nutritionist post-surgery to determine your supplement needs. Borland and his compassionate team are ready to help.

Check out our resources to learn more about weight loss surgery, then contact the office to schedule an initial consultation.

From losing weight and avoiding nutritional deficiencies to becoming a healthier you, we are committed to supporting you every step of the way. Read time: 4 minutes TL;DR Your body needs a variety of vitamins and minerals to function properly.

Nutritional deficiencies can also result from your body not being able to absorb nutrients properly.

Editorial Sources and Fact-Checking Global prevalence and disease burden of vitamin d deficiency: a roadmap for action in low- and middle-income countries external icon. Some research suggests that vitamin D deficiency is linked to fatigue and that taking vitamin D supplements can improve this symptom. Tips for Avoiding Nutritional Deficiencies The best way to avoid nutritional deficiencies is by eating a well-balanced diet. RELATED: 10 Healthy Foods That Are Great Sources of Iron 5. This results in an insufficient amount of healthy red blood cells.
Micronutrient Facts Pernicious anemia is a type of autoimmune disease that eeficiencies Nutritional deficiencies small intestine, Nutrtional absorption of Nutritional deficiencies B What the Size of Your Red Blood Cells Says About Your Health. However, research is still limited on the effects of supplementation for managing RLS 515253 Deficiencies that can cause generally pale skin include:. Skin findings associated with nutritional deficiencies.
Nutritional Deficiencies and How to Avoid Them

Pasta, rice, and cereal are often fortified with a variety of vitamins. In addition to dietary factors, medical conditions can affect your absorption of vitamins, even if your dietary vitamin intake is adequate.

Some diets can make you prone to vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B12 is found in meats—a vegan or vegetarian diet can increase the risk of vitamin B12 and biotin deficiency. If you are dairy-free, then you may be at risk of becoming deficient in vitamin D.

A gluten-free diet is a diet low in grains, which are naturally rich in vitamins and are also often fortified with vitamins. So a gluten-free diet can make you deficient in many vitamins, including folate, and thiamine.

A diet that is high in processed foods and low in fresh fruits and vegetables can result in vitamin E and vitamin K deficiency.

It is absolutely possible to avoid vitamin deficiency if you are vegetarian, vegan, or gluten-free. However, this does require careful planning. Advice from a registered dietitian can help guide you. Vitamin D is found in foods such as seafood, eggs, and dairy products.

But sunlight is also an important source of vitamin D. And lack of sun exposure can result in vitamin D deficiency.

In geographic regions that have a cold climate, this is fairly common during the winter,. A number of medical problems make it hard to properly absorb and metabolize vitamins. This can lead to vitamin deficiencies.

Common medical causes of vitamin deficiency include:. Pernicious anemia is a type of autoimmune disease that affects the small intestine, decreasing absorption of vitamin B This results in an insufficient amount of healthy red blood cells.

Some vitamin deficiencies cause more than one symptom, and some symptoms like sleepiness can occur as a result of a few different vitamin deficiencies. Because symptoms do not always clearly correlate with the specific vitamin deficiency, diagnostic testing is the only way to confirm a vitamin deficiency.

The diagnosis of vitamin deficiencies can take some time. That is because it is not routine to test for vitamin levels. Your healthcare provider may consider testing if you have symptoms or if your physical examination identifies issues like bruises, wounds, skin discoloration, and neuropathy.

Neuropathy is a condition in which nerve function is impaired. It is associated with a lack of vitamin B It can cause you to have decreased sensation, diminished reflexes, and muscle weakness.

Very early neuropathy might not cause these changes, but an electromyography EMG or nerve conduction study NCV can often detect early stages of neuropathy that have not yet caused signs or symptoms.

Blood tests can show signs of vitamin deficiency and can be used to measure your vitamin levels. A complete blood count is the most common screening test. A low red blood cell count or a pattern of enlarged red blood cells megaloblastic anemia is a common sign of vitamin B12 deficiency.

In some instances, your vitamin levels may be measured with a blood test. Vitamins that can be measured with a blood test include folate vitamin B9 , vitamin D, and vitamin B If there is a concern that you could have a digestive problem causing vitamin malabsorption, your healthcare provider may order a test to examine the internal appearance of your stomach or intestines.

An endoscopy is used to examine the appearance of your stomach and the upper portion of your small intestine using a camera that is inserted down your throat. A colonoscopy is used to examine the internal appearance of your large intestine using a camera that is inserted into the rectum.

These tests can be uncomfortable, so they are done with an anesthetic medication. Your healthcare provider can identify problems such as Crohn's disease and some types of malabsorptive syndromes with these interventional examinations.

Treatment for vitamin deficiency involves vitamin replacement. If a medical condition is the cause of your vitamin deficiency, then treatment of that condition is necessary as well.

In many instances, even if a medical condition is contributing to your vitamin deficiency, long term dietary changes can help correct and prevent the deficiency from worsening. You can learn which foods contain the vitamins you need so that you can pay attention to getting an adequate amount of these vitamins.

You may benefit from meeting with a dietitian, who can help you identify which foods you could consider including in your diet. You may also need help with creating a healthy meal plan.

There are several ways to make sure that you get adequate vitamins. Vitamin supplements can be an option. You may be given a recommendation for an over-the-counter OTC or prescription supplement.

Sometimes when there is a problem with absorption, supplements such as vitamin B12 need to be injected instead of taken orally. Nutritional supplements aren't safe for everyone. They may have side effects, negative effects on medical conditions, dangerous interactions with medications, or unwanted effects during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Always talk to your healthcare provider about a supplement before you start taking it. If you have a medical condition such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease, you will benefit from getting treated for that condition.

There are a number of medical and surgical treatments for gastrointestinal conditions. Some illnesses, such as liver failure, may not be treatable at late stages. Long-term injected vitamin supplementation may be necessary. A healthy and varied diet is an important part of good health. Generally speaking, supplements are no substitute for good nutrition.

Be sure to discuss any supplement use with your healthcare provider—they can help counsel you on appropriate use and dosage. National Institutes of Health, U. National Library of Medicine: MedlinePlus.

Nowak A, Boesch L, Andres E, et al. Effect of vitamin D3 on self-perceived fatigue: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial [published correction appears in Medicine Baltimore. Medicine Baltimore. Tardy AL, Pouteau E, Marquez D, Yilmaz C, Scholey A. Vitamins and minerals for energy, fatigue and cognition: A narrative review of the biochemical and clinical evidence.

Published Jan Folate-deficiency anemia. VanBuren CA, Everts HB. Vitamin A in skin and hair: An update. Published Jul Rembe JD, Fromm-Dornieden C, Stuermer EK.

Effects of vitamin B complex and vitamin C on human skin cells: is the perceived effect measurable? Adv Skin Wound Care. Pullar JM, Carr AC, Vissers MCM. The roles of vitamin C in skin health. Umar M, Sastry KS, Al Ali F, Al-Khulaifi M, Wang E, Chouchane A.

Vitamin D and the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Information Center. Vitamin A and skin health. Mikkelsen K, Stojanovska L, Apostolopoulos V.

The effects of vitamin B in depression. Curr Med Chem. Pullar JM, Carr AC, Bozonet SM, Vissers MCM. High vitamin C status is associated with elevated mood in male tertiary students.

Antioxidants Basel. Xie F, Huang T, Lou D, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on the incidence and prognosis of depression: An updated meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials. Front Public Health. Published Aug 1. Galimberti F, Mesinkovska NA. Skin findings associated with nutritional deficiencies.

Cleve Clin J Med. Wolpert K, Szadkowski M, Miescier M, Hewes HA. The presentation of a fussy infant with bruising: Late-onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Pediatr Emerg Care. Harvard University Medical School, Harvard T.

Chan School of Public Health. Vitamin K. Barchitta M, Maugeri A, Favara G, et al. Nutrition and wound healing: An overview focusing on the beneficial effects of curcumin.

Int J Mol Sci. Published Mar 5. Pazyar N, Houshmand G, Yaghoobi R, Hemmati AA, Zeineli Z, Ghorbanzadeh B. Wound healing effects of topical Vitamin K: A randomized controlled trial.

Indian J Pharmacol. Katona P, Katona-Apte J. The interaction between nutrition and infection. Clin Infect Dis. Oz HS. Nutrients, infectious and inflammatory diseases. Published Sep Burt LA, Billington EO, Rose MS, Raymond DA, Hanley DA, Boyd SK.

Effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on volumetric bone density and bone strength: A randomized clinical trial [published correction appears in JAMA. Meyer HE, Willett WC, Fung TT, Holvik K, Feskanich D. Association of high intakes of vitamins B6 and B12 from food and supplements with risk of hip fracture among postmenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study.

JAMA Netw Open. Published May 3. Yee MMF, Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Wong SK. Vitamin A and bone health: A review on current evidence. Published Mar Scripps Health.

What causes dry white patches on skin? Kannan R, Ng MJ. Lesions sometimes can be seen around the eyes, ears, snout and tail and eventually may become generalized. Affected areas of the skin are hyperkeratotic and there may be fissuring of the epidermis with secondary infection of the fissures.

A unique feature occasionally seen is a focal or diffuse hyperkeratosis on the tongue. Parakeratosis is a microscopic feature of affected epidermis and gives this dermatosis its name. Parakeratosis must be differentiated from sarcoptic mange and greasy pig disease exudative dermatitis.

Parakeratosis is nonpruritic whereas sarcoptic mange is pruritic. Greasy pig disease tends to occur in younger, smaller pigs. Pigs with parakeratosis will recover if excessive calcium is removed from the ration and it is properly supplemented with zinc. Most good commercial or carefully compounded rations now are supplemented with adequate levels of zinc salts.

Although once common, parakeratosis seldom occurs today unless a feed mixing error occurs. Rickets is a disease of growing bones. Consequently, it usually is seen in young, weaned, growing pigs in which there is a deficiency, an imbalance, or a failure of utilization of calcium, phosphorous or vitamin D.

Rickets usually is caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamin D or phosphorus. The basic abnormality is a failure of mineralization of osteoid and cartilaginous matrix, especially in growth plates. This is most obvious as a thickening and irregularity of growth plates in long bones.

In confined animals not exposed to sunlight or supplemented, vitamin D may be inadequate. In pastured swine fed little or no grain or protein supplement, phosphorus may be inadequate. Signs of rickets include poor growth, short stature, enlargement of the ends of long bones, lameness and deformation of the weight-bearing long bones.

Necropsy lesions include an unusual number of recent or healing fractures, ribs that bend markedly before they fracture, and widened, thickened and irregular growth plates.

Abnormal growth plates are best seen on longitudinally-sawed long bones. Osteoporosis is a lesion of mature bones. It follows removal of much of the mineral content of the bones. It results from an imbalance between bone formation and resorption in favor of resorption. In the process there may be a softening of the bone osteomalacia.

Osteoporosis occurs often in prolific sows that mobilize minerals for high milk production. Gilts in their first lactation also are susceptible since their skeletal development may have been incomplete and there was no mineral reserve prior to pregnancy.

Osteoporosis often results in fractures in the latter part of a nursing period, immediately after weaning, or during mating. Lack of exercise in confinement likely contributes to osteoporosis but inappropriate ration formulation or mixing is the most important etiological factor.

Signs of osteoporosis include lameness, recumbency, fractures and paraplegia. At necropsy, fractures often can be demonstrated in the femur, humerus or lumbar vertebrae. There may be distortions or deformities of the pelvis. Properly balanced rations, including adequate calcium, phosphorus in the proper ratio and vitamin D are essential for prevention of rickets and osteoporosis.

Adequate exercise also is important for normal skeletal development and maintenance. Treatment tends to be unrewarding for both rickets and osteoporosis.

Feeds high in the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, copper, vitamin A or mycotoxins can either destroy vitamin E or make it less bioavailable. Grains from soils deficient in selenium, or selenium antagonists in mixed feeds, can result in feeds low in selenium. Both vitamin E and selenium work as antioxidants.

The most common is mulberry heart disease MHD. The true causal mechanism is not known but the condition can usually be prevented with additional vitamin E supplementation.

MHD usually occurs when vitamin E is low but is also seen in the face of seemingly adequate levels of vitamin E in tissue or serum. MHD is manifested by sudden death in pigs a few weeks to four months of age that were believed to be in excellent health.

The condition was named after the mottled appearance of the heart muscle in affected pigs. Typically, there are alternating areas of necrosis and hemorrhage throughout the myocardium. The pericardial sac is distended with fluid and fibrin strands.

Straw-colored fluid is often present in the pleural cavity and lungs are edematous. Microscopically there are degenerative changes in arteriole walls at many sites. Supplementation with vitamin E, either parenterally or orally, will prevent deaths from this disease.

Clinically, HD presents as sudden deaths with few or no preceding signs. There are irregular focal to large areas of hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage; some lobules are distended and reddened.

The gall bladder often is edematous. Myocardial necrosis and pulmonary edema may be present. Supplementation with selenium will ameliorate HD. Skeletal muscle pallor or streaks of white, gritty mineralization are observed, particularly in the longissimus dorsi muscle.

Since these deficiencies are similar, it is not surprising that lesions of the syndromes sometimes overlap. Also, prevention is possible through supplementation of feed or drinking water.

Sows injected in late gestation give birth to pigs with increased levels of both compounds.

Nutritional deficiencies


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