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Obesity and weight stigma

Obesity and weight stigma

Navigation Stiggma a journal Publish with us Track your research. Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages. Gordon, T. Soc Sci Med.

Our websites weught use cookies to BCAA and muscle repair and enhance your experience. Stigam continuing without changing your cookie settings, you agree to Obesitj collection. For xtigma Obesity and weight stigma, amd see our University Websites Privacy Notice. People who have weght higher body weight are Oebsity to stereotypes, bias, bullying, and discrimination in Obesity and weight stigma society.

People face weight discrimination Weeight the stivma, biased stogma from health care professionals, negative Stigmw in weifht media, barriers in ztigma, and weight stigma ahd interpersonal relationships.

These stigmatizing experiences anx harmful, leading to both stigna and long-term consequences for emotional and physical health, reducing quality weibht life. Weihht Rudd Center aims to address weight bias, weight stigma, and weight discrimination through research, education, BCAA and muscle repair, Exercise Physiology and Kinesiology advocacy.

To effectively address weight bias or Sstigma stigma, efforts weighg needed Nutritional requirements for powerlifters multiple settings throughout our society. Below are informational resources that provide education about weight discrimination and Obesity and weight stigma to address this problem.

The way that persons Hypertension management strategies obesity are portrayed by the media profoundly Grape Vineyard Equipment the public's understanding weigt attitudes about persons of higher weight.

Television, movies, and social media often reinforce negative attitudes about body weight and perpetuate weight bias or weight stigma throughout our society. For example, characters with larger bodies depicted in popular TV shows and movies are often negatively stereotyped e.

There are important opportunities for the media to play a role in efforts to help reduce societal prejudice towards individuals affected by obesity.

The Rudd Center has created resources to be used by media professionals, educators, and health professionals for the purpose of improving media content related to obesity and improving respectful portrayals of people regardless of their body size.

Access the Gallery. The media is an important and influential source of information about obesity. The way that obesity, weight-loss and weight maintenance are portrayed, described, and framed by the media profoundly shapes the public's understanding and attitudes toward these important health issues and the individuals affect by them.

As a result, the Rudd Center, in partnership with the Obesity Society and Obesity Action Coalition, have created guidelines for media portrayals of individuals affected by weight bias or weight stigma.

Access the Guidelines. Research has consistently documented the adverse effects of parent weight-related comments on adolescent health. However, little empirical attention has focused on isolating the impact of weight-related comments from mothers versus fathers, and the valence of their comments.

The present study examined the extent to which positive and negative weight-related comments from mothers and fathers are related to adolescent health and well-being, and whether these associations differ according to adolescent sociodemographic characteristics.

Read the Study. UConn University of Connecticut school of University of Connecticut. Search University of Connecticut Search UConn. A to Z Index UConn A to Z Index Site A-Z. UConn A-Z. Healthcare Providers. Media Gallery The way that persons with obesity are portrayed by the media profoundly shapes the public's understanding and attitudes about persons of higher weight.

Media Guidelines The media is an important and influential source of information about obesity. Recent Research Research has consistently documented the adverse effects of parent weight-related comments on adolescent health.

: Obesity and weight stigma

Ending weight bias and the stigma of obesity | Nature Reviews Endocrinology

One important way to do this is to remove the word "obese" from our vocabularies. When referring to someone who has excess weight, we should aim to keep in mind that they are a person with a disease, and strive to identify them as a person instead of as the disease they have. For example, the phrase "person with obesity" should be used instead of "obese person.

The health care setting is one in which weight stigma is particularly rampant, leading to significant health consequences for people with overweight or obesity.

Studies have shown that physicians show strong anti-fat bias in health care situations. This bias results in reduced quality of care, and is yet another way in which weight stigma contributes to poor health in people with overweight and obesity. Just as in everyday situations, there are many ways to address stigma in health care settings.

Clinicians should of course follow the same recommendations as above, to acknowledge the existence of weight stigma and strive to use person-first language in their speech and medical documentation.

We have developed five key areas of policy that are a priority to us. Want to know more? Check them out here! Resources Policy Dossiers Weight Stigma In this section. Weight stigma WOF Briefing Read more.

Weight stigma Systematic reviews Read more. Weight stigma Journal articles Read more. Weight stigma Reports, guidelines, recommendations and position statements Read more. Weight stigma Language guidelines and image banks Read more.

Weight stigma Other resources Read more. Drawing parallels from analyses of sexual orientation discrimination laws [ 26 ], we know that policies protecting higher-weight individuals will reduce the likelihood that prejudicial beliefs against stigmatized people are translated into damaging discriminatory treatment.

Influential people who fat shame, whether they are healthcare providers, parents, educators, business leaders, celebrities, or politicians, are the most damaging. They must be made aware of and held responsible for their behavior.

Social attitudes likely change fastest when those with the most power serve as proper role models for a civil society or face negative consequences of their demeaning behavior [ 62 , 63 ].

However, who will call out those that are enacting prejudice? Healthcare providers may be ideal candidates to do so. Higher status individuals incur fewer social costs than lower status individuals when they recognize and claim discrimination happening to others [ 64 ].

Healthcare providers are conferred higher social status due to the imprimatur of medicine, and can thus serve as valuable allies for heavier individuals facing fat shaming.

Finally, public service messages are needed to educate people about the stigma, discrimination, and challenges facing higher-weight individuals; blatant discrimination must be stopped, but so too must the implicit [ 33 ] and daily [ 65 , 66 ] cultural biases against them. Weight stigma often happens in quiet and subtle ways that may be invisible to those doing the stigmatizing, yet hurtful and demoralizing to those on the receiving end.

For example, a thinner patient may receive eye contact and a smile from a physician who walks into the room, whereas that same physician might avoid eye contact with a heavier patient; the daily nature of this form of weight stigma likely accumulates, ultimately harming health [ 67 ].

We have argued in this Opinion article that weight stigma poses a threat to health. There is a clear need to combat weight stigma, which is widespread worldwide [ 3 ] and, as we reviewed above, throughout healthcare settings.

Doing so will help to improve the health and quality of life of millions of people. Enlightened societies should not treat its members with prejudice and discrimination because of how they look.

Healthcare providers should treat obesity if patients have actual markers of poor metabolic health rather than simply due to their high BMI. Indeed, this is the strategy of interventions such as Health at Every Size ® [ 68 ] and other non-dieting approaches reviewed in [ 69 ] , which have been shown in randomized controlled trials to improve multiple health outcomes such as blood pressure and cholesterol.

To advance as an equal society, healthcare providers should lead the way for weight stigma eradication. Richardson SA, Goodman N, Hastorf AH, Dornbusch SM. Cultural uniformity in reaction to physical disabilities.

Am Sociol Rev. Article Google Scholar. Andreyeva T, Puhl RM, Brownell KD. Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, through Article PubMed Google Scholar. Brewis AA, Wutich A, Falletta-Cowden A, Rodriguez-Soto I.

Body norms and fat stigma in global perspective. Curr Anthropol. Puhl RM, Heuer CA. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Puhl RM, Suh Y. Health consequences of weight stigma: implications for obesity prevention and treatment. Curr Obes Rep.

Spahlholz J, Baer N, König H-H, Riedel-Heller SG, Luck-Sikorski C. Obesity and discrimination - a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Obes Rev. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Puhl RM, Andreyeva T, Brownell KD. Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in America. Int J Obes. Article CAS Google Scholar. Fikkan JL, Rothblum ED. Is fat a feminist issue? Exploring the gendered nature of weight bias.

Sex Roles. Phelan SM, Dovidio JF, Puhl RM, et al. Implicit and explicit weight bias in a national sample of 4, medical students: the medical student CHANGES study.

Callahan D. Obesity: chasing an elusive epidemic. Hast Cent Rep. Children, stigma, and obesity. JAMA Pediatr.

Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health. Am J Public Health. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Logel C, Stinson DA, Brochu PM.

Soc Personal Psychol Compass. Major B, Tomiyama AJ, Hunger JM. The negative and bidirectional effects of weight stigma on health. In: Major B, Dovidio JF, Link BG, editors.

The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health; Google Scholar. Major B, Hunger JM, Bunyan DP, Miller CT. The ironic effects of weight stigma. J Exp Soc Psychol. Schvey NA, Puhl RM, Brownell KD.

The impact of weight stigma on caloric consumption. Vartanian LR, Shaprow JG. Effects of weight stigma on exercise motivation and behavior: a preliminary investigation among college-aged females. J Health Psychol. Hunger JM, Tomiyama AJ. Weight labeling and obesity. Jackson SE, Beeken RJ, Wardle J.

Perceived weight discrimination and changes in weight, waist circumference, and weight status. Sutin AR, Terracciano A. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity. PLoS One. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Terracciano A.

Weight discrimination and risk of mortality. Psychol Sci. Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Luchetti M, Terracciano A. Perceived weight discrimination and C-reactive protein.

Tsenkova V, Carr D, Schoeller D, Ryff C. Perceived weight discrimination amplifies the link between central adiposity and nondiabetic glycemic control HbA1c. Ann Behav Med. Pearl RL, Wadden TA, Hopkins CM, et al.

Association between weight bias internalization and metabolic syndrome among treatment-seeking individuals with obesity. Schafer MH, Ferraro KF. The stigma of obesity. Soc Psychol Q. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM, Hasin DS. Associations between perceived weight discrimination and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the general population.

Hackman J, Maupin J, Brewis AA. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: evidence from Guatemala. Soc Sci Med. Daly M, Robinson E, Sutin AR. Does knowing hurt? Perceiving oneself as overweight predicts future physical health and well-being. Robinson E, Sutin AR.

Parental perception of weight status and weight gain across childhood. Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Yeazel MW, Hellerstedt WL, Griffin JM, van Ryn M. Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity.

Puhl RM, Phelan SM, Nadglowski J, Kyle TK. Overcoming weight bias in the management of patients with diabetes and obesity. Clin Diabetes. Sabin JA, Marini M, Nosek BA. Tomiyama AJ, Finch LE, Belsky ACI, et al. Weight bias in versus contradictory attitudes among obesity researchers and health professionals.

Adarns CH, Smith NJ, Wilbur DC, Grady KE. The relationship of obesity to the frequency of pelvic examinations: do physician and patient attitudes make a difference? Women Health.

Amy NK, Aalborg A, Lyons P, Keranen L. Barriers to routine gynecological cancer screening for white and African-American obese women. Hebl MR, Xu J, Mason MF. Bertakis KD, Azari R. The impact of obesity on primary care visits. Obes Res. Carr D, Friedman MA.

Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

J Health Soc Behav. Puhl RM, Peterson JL, Luedicke J. Parental perceptions of weight terminology that providers use with youth. Motivating or stigmatizing? Public perceptions of weight-related language used by health providers. Gudzune KA, Bennett WL, Cooper LA, Bleich SN. Perceived judgment about weight can negatively influence weight loss: a cross-sectional study of overweight and obese patients.

Prev Med Baltim. Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Puhl RM, et al. The adverse effect of weight stigma on the well-being of medical students with overweight or obesity: findings from a national survey. J Gen Intern Med. Puhl RM, Moss-Racusin CA, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Weight stigmatization and bias reduction: perspectives of overweight and obese adults.

Weight Stigma Want to wsight more? Stigam PubMed Google Scholar Hofmann B. Sallis JF, Saelens Obesity and weight stigma, Frank LD, BCAA and muscle repair TL, Slymen Lean chicken breast lunch, Cain KL, Chapman Stugma, Kerr J. doi : is an employee of Diabetes UK. Evidence from several countries 68697071 shows that when individuals attribute the causes of obesity primarily to internal, controllable factors or personal choices, they exhibit higher weight bias, whereas acknowledging the complex causes of obesity including elements such as genetics, biology, and environmental factors is associated with lower levels of weight bias and less blame.
Weight Bias & Stigma | Rudd Center for Food Policy and Health View author publications. Senate elections. Furthermore, there sitgma be legal Gut health against weight-based Amd. Obesity is a sign - over-eating is a Weightt an aetiological framework for the assessment and management of obesity. Article Google Scholar Church T, Martin CK. Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S, Buchkovich ML, Yang J, et al. A subgroup of expert panel members F.
Background Public Integrity. NYU Press. Related topics Allophilia Amatonormativity Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Figleaf Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news in the United States Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social identity threat Social model of disability Social stigma Speciesism Stereotype threat The talk White privilege. Briony Hill Health and Social Care Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Email address Sign up. ISBN
Media Gallery Article PubMed Google Scholar Pancrazi R, van Rens T, Vukotic M. Perceived judgment about weight can negatively influence weight loss: a cross-sectional study of overweight and obese patients. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Luchetti M, Terracciano A. Stryjecki C, Alyass A, Meyre D. Philadelphia: W. Curr Diab Rep.

Obesity and weight stigma -

Council of the Obesity Society. Obesity as a disease: the Obesity Society Council resolution. Obesity Silver Spring 16 , Spahlholz, J. Obesity and discrimination - a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Article CAS Google Scholar.

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References Rubino, F. Article PubMed Google Scholar Blüher, M. Alarmingly, cyberbullying, hostility, and verbal aggression particularly towards women with overweight and obesity were pervasive [ 74 ]. On YouTube, Yoo and Kim found that videos expressing derogatory views towards people with overweight and obesity tend to attract a high number of views, ratings, and viewer interaction.

Personal accountability for obesity was a dominant rhetoric on YouTube, correlating with a preponderance of recommendations for changes in personal behaviour [ 75 ]. Obesity stigma is also perpetuated within the advertising and marketing industry, including the weight loss industry itself.

Paid advertisements both on commercial television and online traditionally portray people with overweight and obesity as both unattractive and unhappy, and focus exclusively on personal responsibility for obesity through promoting diet and exercise products [ 63 ].

Advertisers generally cultivate a belief that body weight is controllable through individual efforts and that leanness associates with success in all areas of life [ 77 ]. The depiction of obesity in the news and journalistic media outlets reinforces the stigmatisation of people with obesity [ 78 ].

McClure et al. showed that images negatively portraying people with obesity, for example depicting unflattering poses or stereotyped actions like eating fast food, promote obesity stigma [ 78 ].

In a study of the British press, Baker et al. Chiang et al. This misrepresentation of the underlying contributors to the development of obesity reduces the societal perceived responsibility of governments and large corporations to address obesity [ 78 ]. Political action over the last two decades has galvanised policy and legislation against collective responsibility for the obesity epidemic, consistently enforcing personal responsibility for body weight.

The food industry has pushed this framing of personal responsibility in policy debates [ 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 ]. Similar bills and legislations have subsequently been introduced in over 20 US states [ 86 ]. The rhetoric of personal responsibility for obesity is often touted by government officials.

It is no surprise then that public health campaigns, which are largely funded and guided by political support, often misrepresent obesity as a personal choice.

Even when environmental and societal contributors are represented in discussion, solutions to obesity focus on changing individual behaviour in lieu of strategies consistent with the evidence base [ 78 ]. These public health efforts to reduce obesity also have stigmatising effects. It is worth mentioning the recent emergence of safe spaces for obesity-related issues and experiences that are free from judgement [ 95 ].

The body positivity and neutrality movements are two phenomena that reject narrow body ideals and focus on self-acceptance and respect for all body sizes [ 96 , 97 ]. These movements seem to be making progress in the representation of people with obesity in the media.

Advertising campaigns that promote body acceptance appear to increase self-esteem and mood [ 98 ], and the use of average and plus-sized models tend to reduce body-focussed anxiety and improve body satisfaction of viewers [ 99 ].

Groups within social media and the internet are creating digital spaces where obesity stigma is challenged and people with obesity are included and empowered, having a voice that is rarely represented in the physical world [ 95 , ]. These positive changes may suggest that we are amid a transitional period for the representation of people with obesity within our society.

However, progress does not appear to be occurring across all domains, particularly in news, political, and public health media.

Furthermore, the examples outlined here reflect a likely minority of trends in the representation of obesity, and obesity stigmatisation continues to appear rife within the public consciousness and lived experience of people with obesity. The damaging effects of obesity stigmatisation are widespread and include psychological, physical, and socioeconomic harm [Fig.

These data suggest that depression associates with obesity stigmatisation rather than obesity per se. A recent meta-analysis by Alimoradi et al.

Beyond its severe mental health consequences, obesity stigma is also detrimental to short- and long-term physical health. Counter to traditional public health beliefs that social pressure encourages people with obesity to lose weight [ 25 ], ironically, evidence suggests that obesity stigma actually increases the risk of obesity.

Obesity stigma may be associated with increased difficulty of losing weight and medication non-adherence and people with obesity may exclude themselves from some exercise settings [ , ]. Unlike other public health issues addressing social norms, such as tobacco smoking [ ], making obesity socially unacceptable does not appear to reduce obesity rates, and on the contrary results in increased harms.

In addition to worsening mental and physical health, obesity stigma may also augment all-cause mortality and shorten lifespan. This increased mortality risk persisted when controlled for common risk factors, including BMI [ 11 ]. Chronic psychological stress resulting from obesity stigma can trigger activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis with increased release of adrenally derived cortisol that in turn can drive increased fat deposition and appetite [ , ].

Enhanced cortisol release may contribute to increased mortality through weight gain and associations with inflammation, immune dysregulation, hypertension, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress [ , , ].

Furthermore, enhanced cortisol release may also mediate some of the worsening effects of obesity stigma on abdominal obesity, glycaemic control, and the development of metabolic syndrome [ 12 ]. These associations parallel the pathophysiology contributing to worse health outcomes for those experiencing other forms of discrimination such as racism [ , ].

Obesity stigma contributes to poorer healthcare for people with obesity. There is growing evidence that healthcare providers have strong explicit and implicit biases against people with obesity [ , ].

Healthcare obesity stigma is characterised by stereotypes of laziness, lack of discipline, and willpower [ ]. Inevitably, this mindset influences the judgement, behaviour, and decision-making of healthcare providers [ ], who tend to have less respect for people with obesity [ ] and believe that people with obesity are less likely to follow self-care recommendations or adhere to recommended treatments [ , ].

Understandably, people with obesity have reported avoiding healthcare encounters due to discriminatory and stigmatising experiences [ , ]. People with obesity report being mistreated and even ignored when receiving healthcare, and are up to three times more likely to report being denied healthcare [ 13 ].

Obesity stigma within healthcare and stigmatised judgements from healthcare professionals also perpetuates obesity by reducing the likelihood of people achieving their weight loss targets [ ].

Finally, the socioeconomic impact of obesity is extensive. In employment, researchers from high-income countries believe that having obesity negatively impacts wages, promotion, and the potential for disciplinary action [ , ].

In the USA, people with obesity have previously been found to be less likely to be hired than their lean counterparts, even when qualifications are identical [ ]. In Korea, women who are overweight receive less pay than lean women for the same work [ ].

There is plentiful anecdotal evidence of people getting fired for having overweight or obesity [ , ]. In education also, obesity stigma appears to be present at all levels of schooling and college — at least in some countries — and leads to prejudice, rejection, and harassment, making educational spaces less safe for people with obesity [ ].

In public settings too such as theatres, cinemas, shops, restaurants, and transport, obesity stigma may shape attitudes that people with obesity should not be accommodated for. Accordingly, people with obesity may be prevented from the same level of participation as their lean counterparts through a public infrastructure that fails to accommodate them adequately.

Overall, obesity stigma has a substantial impact on socioeconomic factors through diverse means that include unequal standards in education, employment, career progression, salary, and public infrastructure. Addressing obesity stigma is a healthcare imperative.

Furthermore, obesity stigma perpetuates obesity through physiological, psychological, and social effects, acting like a vicious circle [ 25 ].

Addressing obesity stigma is also an ethical imperative. Stigma burdens groups with undue discrimination, prejudice, and exclusion, and dehumanises them in the face of their community [ 60 ].

Stigma is especially unethical in the context of obesity insofar that it burdens already underprivileged and vulnerable groups, such as the global poor, rural, and certain minority ethnic groups [ 60 ].

Addressing obesity stigma is necessary to improve the public health efforts to prevent and manage obesity, which despite global efforts has had limited success to date [ ]. Interventions that target the individual have had little success, partly due to obesity stigma-induced barriers to the widespread adoption of healthy behaviours [ , ].

When obesity is seen as a personal choice, as reinforced by obesity stigma, solutions focus on changing individual behaviours in lieu of synergistic strategies that focus on changing systems and environments to support healthy behaviours, the latter being consistent with the current evidence base [ 25 , 78 , , , ].

However, such an approach is hampered through widespread obesity stigma within society. Re-calibrating this perception amongst society, including politicians, healthcare providers, and town planners, will help to support the development of effective public health strategies for the future that should properly address the many and diverse environmental and systemic contributors to the development of obesity, balanced with consideration of personal factors.

Firstly, it is important to acknowledge the striking paucity of research on the topic of reducing obesity stigma within society. Authors of systematic reviews have repeatedly highlighted this deficiency and the low quality of existing research papers within the field [ , , ].

A prerequisite for tackling the problem of obesity stigma within society is the generation of high-quality research on effective interventions that have consistent theoretical frameworks, strong study designs, and sound methodologies [ , ].

Such data will facilitate the development of a consensus on the development of optimal strategies to reduce obesity stigma within society, and enable implementation of consistent and co-ordinated public health action [ ].

Secondly, shifting public health messaging away from obesity and towards healthy behaviours, or alternatively away from behaviour completely, to allow the appropriate focus on the environments where the behaviour takes place, may facilitate the deconstruction of obesity stigma.

We do not deny that there is strong evidence that having overweight and obesity increases all-cause mortality [ ], and that weight loss can improve obesity-related morbidity [ ].

However, benefits of healthy behaviours are often overlooked in the context of BMI [ ]. The year prospective Rotterdam study showed that physical activity moderated the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with overweight and obesity to the extent that there was no difference in CVD risk between people with high or normal-range BMI [ ].

Other studies show that healthy diets may reduce all-cause mortality risk, particularly CVD risk, even when accounting for BMI [ ]. Based on such evidence, placing too much emphasis on obesity per se, and focussing too much on weight loss purely to reduce obesity severity, is perhaps unhelpful.

Although this may appear counterintuitive, such a traditional approach to obesity unfortunately also places emphasis on appearance and may actually demotivate and ostracise people with obesity [ 9 , ], thereby hampering rather than helping with obesity management.

An alternate approach, and one that we support, promotes the use of public health policies that encourage the adoption of healthy behaviours, including for example nutrient-rich diets cooked from their raw ingredients rather than ultra-processed foods , regular engagement in physical activity, and sleep sufficiency by intervening to create environmental drivers for these behaviours.

All people, including those with overweight and obesity, should be empowered and supported through structural interventions and policies and positive public health messaging to adopt such healthy lifestyle activities and behaviours [ , ].

This approach does not deny the harmful effects of excess body weight, but by detracting attention from body shape and size should help to diminish societal obesity stigma, whilst facilitating healthy living, that in turn should help in the prevention and management of obesity, stigma-free.

As interventions that rely solely on education and individual behaviour change are largely ineffective [ , ], enabling healthy behaviours will require both physical and food environmental changes and fiscal policies to support them [ 25 ]. Examples include improvements to the availability, accessibility, and affordability of fresh nutrient-rich foods, improved public transportation and urban planning to facilitate active and safe outdoor lifestyles [ , ].

Thirdly, deconstructing obesity stigma through educational interventions is promising. Educational interventions that provide information on the genetic and environmental causes of obesity have shown some success in changing attitudes about how much control individuals have over their own body weight [ , ].

Other studies on healthcare students and workers have had modest success by evoking empathy and acceptance of persons with obesity through positive contact [ ]. Current evidence suggests that the greatest efficacy on tackling obesity stigma is achieved when multiple and diverse educational strategies are combined [ ].

Extrapolating these early findings, obesity could be reframed in public education efforts as a chronic condition that manifests primarily from a combination of genetic predisposition that interacts maladaptively with our obesogenic environment: factors that are predominantly beyond our individual control [ 9 ].

Furthermore, people living with obesity should receive positive representation in the media, including acceptance, inclusion, and empowerment.

Importantly, the voices of people with obesity should be amongst the forefront of these public health campaigns [ ]. Educational efforts could be targeted at institutions where the impact of obesity stigma is particularly pronounced, such as healthcare, educational settings, and places of employment [ ].

The re-classification of obesity has been discussed by others as key to education efforts. There is significant debate in academic and public realms on the appropriateness of this stance [ ].

In contrast, there is legitimate concern that a disease label will worsen the stigmatisation of people with obesity and increase discrimination [ , ]. There is also evidence that disease-labelling may disempower and reduce self-efficacy; Hoyt et al.

found that labelling obesity as a disease reduced concerns about weight and predicted higher-calorie food choices amongst people with higher BMIs [ ]. We caution against the labelling of obesity as a disease prior to more extensive investigation of its impact on obesity stigmatisation and psychosocial wellbeing, in addition to potential policy, fiscal, and healthcare impacts.

Fourthly, efforts to reduce obesity stigmatisation in the public domain could be spearheaded by legislation to prohibit prejudice and discrimination on the basis of weight [ 86 ]. Although educational efforts are important, without the support of our formal institutions, these messages are likely to be insufficient [ ].

Few national or state legislations globally protect citizens from weight discrimination, providing legal freedom for industries to discriminate based on obesity status [ 62 ].

Weight-based discrimination should be formally recognised as a legitimate social concern and be included in antidiscrimination acts that prohibit discrimination based on other personal characteristics such as sex, marital status, or disability. Notably, it will be important to balance the need for protection and equal treatment of people with obesity against the risk of even greater obesity stigmatisation that may stem from such new legislation [ ].

Position statements from government and public health organisations should demonstrate non-stigmatising language and discourse around obesity. Implementing these changes will take no less than a social overhaul and is likely to require decades of consistent action.

Perhaps we can use the example of racial discrimination, which decades ago was rife globally, and in many countries acceptable and legally permitted and even encouraged through, for example, apartheid. Although, sadly, racial discrimination continues in our modern world, it is often illegal, and generally much better recognised and managed than in previous decades.

We need to move towards such a scenario with obesity stigma and discrimination. We predict that in the decades to come, we will look back at our current era in shame. We will recognise obesity stigma for what it is: discrimination just like any other form of discrimination that has become normalised within our society to an extent that its existence often even goes unnoticed.

An important step on this long road will be to dispel myths around obesity, and to educate society on its true causes. Improved understanding should help to dispel associated myths around personal responsibility and should help to foster more empathy for people living with obesity.

Gradually, such renewed understanding and insights should help us to have the courage and conviction to question obesity stigma when we encounter it, and hold the perpetrators to account, so that they too can question their misjudged beliefs and behaviours.

As outlined, this approach will only work through a combined, concerted, and sustained effort from multiple stakeholders and key decision-makers within society. Only then can we hope for a transformed society which is finally freed from the shackles of obesity stigma, in which body weight no longer defines the people living in it.

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Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults. Popkin B. Rural areas drive increases in global obesity. Cohen SA, Greaney ML, Sabik NJ. Assessment of dietary patterns, physical activity and obesity from a national survey: rural-urban health disparities in older adults.

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The Lancet. Wang Y, Beydoun MA. Epidemiol Rev. Sankar P, Cho MK, Condit CM, Hunt LM, Koenig B, Marshall P, Lee SS, Spicer P. In addition, dispensing with the standard cookie-cutter advice to eat less and exercise more to lose weight would be of great benefit to patients. This type of advice doesn't take into account the many environmental, genetic, and physiologic causes of obesity, and puts blame on the patient as the sole cause and contributor of their obesity.

Clinicians should also take care not to assume a patient with obesity is automatically engaging in overeating behaviors, and should believe their patients' reports of dietary intake and physical activity.

The clinical visit should be focused on information gathering and understanding of a patient's particular situation. Referral to an obesity specialist may be warranted if the clinician is not comfortable with discussing or prescribing different treatment options. It is of utmost importance for patients with obesity to seek care from compassionate and knowledgeable health care providers, to optimize the quality of their care and reduce the negative effects of weight bias.

The following organizations have plenty of information and resources for both patients and health care providers to learn more about obesity as a disease and how to combat weight stigma.

The Obesity Action Coalition is an organization that works to help individuals with obesity improve their health through education, advocacy, awareness, and support.

The OAC would like to Obesigy the Rudd Center for HbAc targets for prediabetes Policy and Obesity andd assistance in creating this brochure. Often ignored, however, are the sfigma Obesity and weight stigma personal obstacles that individuals with excess weight or obesity Obesity and weight stigma. Bias, Obesity and weight stigma, etigma discrimination due to weight are frequent experiences for many individuals with obesity, which have serious consequences for their personal and social well being and overall health. Given that at least half of the American population is overweight, the number of people potentially faced with discrimination and stigmatization is immense. Weight stigma plays a role in everyday life, including work, school and healthcare settings. It remains a socially acceptable form of prejudice in American society, and is rarely challenged. Obesity stigma is a major issue in our society. Obesiyt type of stigma has weigut effects ane the Obesity and weight stigma and we Metabolic health formulas to eradicate Immunity-boosting remedies. In Obesity and weight stigma to do that, we need to be able to understand what weight bias is and why this type of discrimination is unacceptable. Weight bias is negative attitudes, beliefs, judgments, stereotypes, and discriminatory acts aimed at individuals simply because of their weight. It can be overt or subtle and occur in Obezity setting, including employment, healthcare, education, mass media and relationships with family and friends. Obesity and weight stigma

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