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Exercise and blood sugar balance in elderly individuals

Exercise and blood sugar balance in elderly individuals

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Exercise and blood sugar balance in elderly individuals -

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Actions for this page Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet. On this page. Benefits of exercise Diabetes — precautions to take before starting an exercise program Diabetes, exercise and foot care Diabetes, exercise and blood glucose levels Diabetes, exercise and ketoacidosis Diabetes complications and exercise Where to get help.

The guidelines recommend the following physical activity: Children — 3 hours of various physical activities each day, including energetic play such as crawling, walking, jumping, dancing.

Adults 17 — 64 years — 2. Older adults 64 years and over — 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days such as walking, shopping, gardening.

None of these activities need to be done all at once. Several shorter sessions can add up over the day. Exercise helps to: improve mood and sleep improve muscle strength and bone mass lower blood glucose levels BGLs lower cholesterol and blood pressure improve heart and blood vessel health maintain or achieve your healthiest body weight reduce stress and tension improve mental health If you are at risk of type 2 diabetes , exercise can be part of a healthy lifestyle that can help to reduce this risk.

Diabetes — precautions to take before starting an exercise program While exercise has many benefits it is also important to know about some guidelines for diabetes and exercise.

Make sure you have an individualised diabetes management plan — your diabetes health professional can help you with this.

If you have never exercised before, start with low impact exercise such as walking and go slowly. This will help build exercise tolerance. You will also be more likely to continue doing regular exercise and prevent injuries. Consider seeing an exercise physiologist for an individualised exercise program.

This is especially helpful if you have pain or limited movement. Discuss with your doctor or diabetes educator the most appropriate areas of the body to inject your insulin, especially during exercise. Diabetes, exercise and foot care People who have had diabetes for a long time or those who have consistently high BGLs are at higher risk of developing foot problems.

You can prevent foot injuries and infections by: wearing well-fitting socks and shoes — check that shoes are long enough, wide enough and deep enough wearing the right shoe for the activity you are doing inspecting your feet daily having annual foot checks by a podiatrist reporting to your doctor any changes to your feet, such as redness, swelling or cuts or wounds, as soon as you detect them.

Diabetes, exercise and blood glucose levels Exercise causes your muscles to use more glucose, so it can lower your BGLs. Hypoglycaemia Hypoglycaemia or a low BGL 4. You can reduce your risk of hypoglycaemia during and after exercise by: checking your BGLs before exercise — make sure your BGL is at least 7.

Your risk of hypoglycaemia during exercise is increased if: you have type 1 diabetes you inject insulin or take a sulphonylurea you have had recurring episodes of hypoglycaemia you are unable to detect the early warning signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia you have an episode of hypoglycaemia before exercise as both exercise and hypoglycaemia reduce your ability to detect further hypoglycaemia you have drunk alcohol before exercise alcohol reduces your ability to detect hypoglycaemia.

Diabetes, exercise and ketoacidosis People with type 1 diabetes are at risk of developing a build-up of ketones ketoacidosis if they are unwell or have forgotten to take their insulin.

Diabetes complications and exercise If you have existing diabetes complications such as heart, eye or kidney problems, check with your diabetes specialist if it is safe to do certain types of activity. Where to get help In an emergency, always call triple zero Emergency department of your nearest hospital Your GP doctor Your diabetes educator NURSE-ON-CALL Tel.

Physical activity and exercise guidelines for all Australians External Link , , Department of Health, Australian Government. Managing hypoglycaemia fact sheet External Link , National Diabetes Services Scheme NDSS. Exercise and diabetes booklet External Link , Diabetes Victoria. Give feedback about this page.

Was this page helpful? Yes No. View all diabetes. Related information. Regular physical activity during pregnancy also lowers the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus , Once gestational diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, either aerobic or resistance training can improve insulin action and glycemic control In women with gestational diabetes mellitus, particularly those who are overweight and obese, vigorous-intensity exercise during pregnancy may reduce the odds of excess gestational weight gain Ideally, the best time to start physical activity is prior to pregnancy to reduce gestational diabetes mellitus risk , but it is safe to initiate during pregnancy with very few contraindications Any pregnant women using insulin should be aware of the insulin-sensitizing effects of exercise and increased risk of hypoglycemia, particularly during the first trimester Insulin regimen and carbohydrate intake changes should be used to prevent exercise-related hypoglycemia.

Other strategies involve including short sprints, performing resistance exercise before aerobic exercise in the same session, and activity timing. Exercise-induced hyperglycemia is more common in type 1 diabetes but may be modulated with insulin administration or a lower-intensity aerobic cooldown.

Exercising with hyperglycemia and elevated blood ketones is not recommended. Some medications besides insulin may increase the risks of exercise-related hypoglycemia and doses may need to be adjusted based on exercise training.

Exercise-induced hypoglycemia is common in people with type 1 diabetes and, to a lesser extent, people with type 2 diabetes using insulin or insulin secretagogues. In addition to insulin regimen and carbohydrate intake changes, a brief 10 s maximal intensity sprint performed before or after a moderate-intensity exercise session may protect against hypoglycemia Performing high-intensity bouts intermittently during moderate aerobic exercise also slows blood glucose declines 81 , , , as can resistance exercise done immediately prior to aerobic Exercise-induced nocturnal hypoglycemia is a major concern Exercise-induced hyperglycemia is more common in type 1 diabetes.

Purposeful insulin omission before exercise can promote a rise in glycemia, as can malfunctioning infusion sets Individuals with type 2 diabetes may also experience increases in blood glucose after aerobic or resistance exercise, particularly if they are insulin users and administer too little insulin for meals before activity Overconsumption of carbohydrates before or during exercise, along with aggressive insulin reduction, can promote hyperglycemia during any exercise Very intense exercise such as sprinting , brief but intense aerobic exercise , and heavy powerlifting , may promote hyperglycemia, especially if starting blood glucose levels are elevated Hyperglycemia risk is mitigated if intense activities are interspersed between moderate-intensity aerobic ones 82 , Similarly, combining resistance training done first with aerobic training second optimizes glucose stability in type 1 diabetes Millán, personal communication.

Excessive insulin corrections after exercise increase nocturnal hypoglycemia risk, which can result in mortality Adults with diabetes are frequently treated with multiple medications for diabetes and other comorbid conditions. Some medications other than insulin may increase exercise risk and doses may need to be adjusted , Although appropriate changes should be individualized, Table 4 lists general considerations and guidelines for medications.

Exercise considerations for diabetes, hypertension, and cholesterol medications and recommended safety and dose adjustments. If exercise-induced hypoglycemia has occurred, decrease dose on exercise days to reduce hypoglycemia risk.

May increase risk of hypoglycemia when used with insulin or sulfonylureas but not when used alone. Generally safe; no dose adjustment for exercise but may need to lower insulin or sulfonylurea dose.

Doses may need to be adjusted to accommodate the improvements from training and avoid dehydration. Physical activity increases bodily heat production and core temperature, leading to greater skin blood flow and sweating.

In relatively young adults with type 1 diabetes, temperature regulation is only impaired during high-intensity exercise , With increasing age, poor blood glucose control, and neuropathy, skin blood flow and sweating may be impaired in adults with type 1 , and type 2 diabetes, increasing the risk of heat-related illness.

Chronic hyperglycemia also increases risk through dehydration caused by osmotic diuresis, and some medications that lower blood pressure may also impact hydration and electrolyte balance.

Active individuals with type 1 diabetes are not at increased risk of tendon injury , but this may not apply to sedentary or older individuals with diabetes.

Given that diabetes may lead to exercise-related overuse injuries due to changes in joint structures related to glycemic excursions , exercise training for anyone with diabetes should progress appropriately to avoid excessive aggravation to joint surfaces and structures, particularly when taking statin medications for lipid control Physical activity with vascular diseases can be undertaken safely but with appropriate precautions.

Physical activity done with peripheral neuropathy necessitates proper foot care to prevent, detect, and prevent problems early to avoid ulceration and amputation. The presence of autonomic neuropathy may complicate being active; certain precautions are warranted to prevent problems during activity.

Vigorous aerobic or resistance exercise; jumping, jarring, head-down activities; and breath holding should be avoided in anyone with severe nonproliferative and unstable proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Exercise does not accelerate progression of kidney disease and can be undertaken safely, even during dialysis sessions. Regular stretching and appropriate progression of activities should be done to manage joint changes and diabetes-related orthopedic limitations. Macrovascular and microvascular diabetes-related complications can develop and worsen with inadequate blood glucose control , Vascular and neural complications of diabetes often cause physical limitation and varying levels of disability requiring precautions during exercise, as recommended in Table 5.

Physical activity consideration, precautions, and recommended activities for exercising with health-related complications. Coronary perfusion may actually be enhanced during higher-intensity aerobic or resistance exercise. Onset of chest pain on exertion, but exercise-induced ischemia may be silent in some with diabetes.

Stop exercise immediately should symptoms of myocardial infarction such as chest pain, radiating pain, shortness of breath, and others occur during physical activity and seek medical attention. Stop exercise immediately if symptoms of a stroke occurring suddenly and often affecting only one side of the body happen during exercise.

Lower-extremity resistance training improves functional performance Low- or moderate-intensity walking, arm ergometer, and leg ergometer preferred as aerobic activities Regular aerobic exercise may also prevent the onset or delay the progression of peripheral neuropathy in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes Proper care of the feet is needed to prevent foot ulcers and lower the risk of amputation 6.

Keep feet dry and use appropriate footwear, silica gel or air midsoles, and polyester or blend socks not pure cotton. Manage with appropriate footwear and choice of activities to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk Moderate walking is not likely to increase risk of foot ulcers or reulceration with peripheral neuropathy May cause postural hypotension, chronotropic incompetence, delayed gastric emptying, altered thermoregulation, and dehydration during exercise 6.

With postural hypotension, avoid activities with rapid postural or directional changes to avoid fainting or falling. With cardiac autonomic neuropathy, obtain physician approval and possibly undergo symptom-limited exercise testing before commencing exercise With blunted heart rate response, use heart rate reserve and ratings of perceived exertion to monitor exercise intensity Individuals with mild to moderate nonproliferative changes have limited or no risk for eye damage from physical activity.

With moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, avoid activities that dramatically elevate blood pressure, such as powerlifting. Individuals with unstable diabetic retinopathy are at risk for vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment. Avoid activities that dramatically elevate blood pressure, such as vigorous activity of any type.

Avoid vigorous exercise; jumping, jarring, and head-down activities; and breath holding 6. Cataracts do not impact the ability to exercise, only the safety of doing so due to loss of visual acuity.

Exercise does not accelerate progression of kidney disease even though protein excretion acutely increases afterward 6 , Greater participation in moderate-to-vigorous leisure time activity and higher physical activity levels may actually moderate the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy — All activities okay, but vigorous exercise should be avoided the day before urine protein tests are performed to prevent false positive readings.

Both aerobic and resistance training improve physical function and quality of life in individuals with kidney disease. All activities okay, but exercise should begin at a low intensity and volume if aerobic capacity and muscle function are substantially reduced.

Doing supervised, moderate aerobic physical activity undertaken during dialysis sessions may be beneficial and increase compliance Exercise should begin at a low intensity and volume if aerobic capacity and muscle function are substantially reduced.

Individuals with diabetes are more prone to structural changes to joints that can limit movement, including shoulder adhesive capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, metatarsal fractures, and neuropathy-related joint disorders Charcot foot In addition to engaging in other activities as able , do regular flexibility training to maintain greater joint range of motion 10 , Stretch within warm-ups or after an activity to increase joint range of motion best Most low- and moderate-intensity activities okay, but more non—weight-bearing or low-impact exercise may be undertaken to reduce stress on joints.

Do range-of-motion activities and light resistance exercise to increase strength of muscles surrounding affected joints. Avoid activities with high risk of joint trauma, such as contact sports and ones with rapid directional changes.

Targeted behavior-change strategies should be used to increase physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes. For adults with type 2 diabetes, Internet-delivered interventions for physical activity promotion may be used to improve outcomes.

Behavioral interventions can significantly increase physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes , and A1C reductions produced by such interventions have been sustained to 24 months However, motivational interviewing is not significantly better than usual care , and other intervention factors associated with weight loss, such as number and duration of contacts, have been inconsistent or not associated with greater participation Wearing the device may prompt activity, and it provides feedback for self-monitoring.

Pedometer use in adults with type 2 diabetes increased their daily steps by 1,, but did not improve A1C Using a daily steps goal e. The positive findings for pedometers are not universal , however, and some individuals may require greater support to realize benefits.

Longer-term efficacy and determination of which populations can benefit from pedometers and other wearable activity trackers require further evaluation. Given that the majority of individuals with type 2 diabetes have access to the Internet, technology-based support is appealing for extending clinical intervention reach.

For adults with type 2 diabetes, Internet-delivered physical activity promotion interventions may be more effective than usual care More evidence is needed regarding social media approaches, given the importance of social and peer support in diabetes self-management Physical activity and exercise should be recommended and prescribed to all individuals with diabetes as part of management of glycemic control and overall health.

Specific recommendations and precautions will vary by the type of diabetes, age, activity done, and presence of diabetes-related health complications.

Recommendations should be tailored to meet the specific needs of each individual. In addition to engaging in regular physical activity, all adults should be encouraged to decrease the total amount of daily sedentary time and to break up sitting time with frequent bouts of activity.

Finally, behavior-change strategies can be used to promote the adoption and maintenance of lifetime physical activity. Duality of Interest. No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

This position statement was reviewed and approved by the American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee in June and ratified by the American Diabetes Association Board of Directors in September Sign In or Create an Account.

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Volume 39, Issue Previous Article Next Article. TYPES OF EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. BENEFITS OF EXERCISE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND TYPE 1 DIABETES. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PREGNANCY WITH DIABETES. Article Information. Article Navigation. Position Statement October 11 Colberg ; Sheri R. Corresponding author: Sheri R. Colberg, scolberg odu. This Site.

Google Scholar. Ronald J. Sigal ; Ronald J. Jane E. Yardley ; Jane E. Michael C. Riddell ; Michael C. David W. Dunstan ; David W. Paddy C.

Dempsey ; Paddy C. Edward S. Horton ; Edward S. Kristin Castorino ; Kristin Castorino. Deborah F. Tate Deborah F. Diabetes Care ;39 11 — Get Permissions. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. B Prolonged sitting should be interrupted with bouts of light activity every 30 min for blood glucose benefits, at least in adults with type 2 diabetes.

C The above two recommendations are additional to, and not a replacement for, increased structured exercise and incidental movement. B Adults with type 2 diabetes should ideally perform both aerobic and resistance exercise training for optimal glycemic and health outcomes.

C Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to meet the same physical activity goals set for youth in general. B Insulin users can exercise using either basal-bolus injection regimens or insulin pumps, but there are advantages and disadvantages to both insulin delivery methods.

C Continuous glucose monitoring during physical activity can be used to detect hypoglycemia when used as an adjunct rather than in place of capillary glucose tests.

Table 1 Suggested carbohydrate intake or other actions based on blood glucose levels at the start of exercise. Pre-exercise blood glucose. Carbohydrate intake or other action. Initiate mild-to-moderate exercise and avoid intense exercise until glucose levels decrease.

View Large. Table 2 Suggested initial pre-exercise meal insulin bolus reduction for activity started within 90 min after insulin administration. Exercise intensity. Exercise duration. C Individuals with diabetes or prediabetes are encouraged to increase their total daily incidental nonexercise physical activity to gain additional health benefits.

C To gain more health benefits from physical activity programs, participation in supervised training is recommended over nonsupervised programs. Table 3 Exercise training recommendations: types of exercise, intensity, duration, frequency, and progression.

Flexibility and Balance. Type of exercise Prolonged, rhythmic activities using large muscle groups e. C Pregnant women with or at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus should be advised to engage in 20—30 min of moderate-intensity exercise on most or all days of the week.

C Exercise-induced hyperglycemia is more common in type 1 diabetes but may be modulated with insulin administration or a lower-intensity aerobic cooldown. C Some medications besides insulin may increase the risks of exercise-related hypoglycemia and doses may need to be adjusted based on exercise training.

C Exercise training should progress appropriately to minimize risk of injury. Table 4 Exercise considerations for diabetes, hypertension, and cholesterol medications and recommended safety and dose adjustments.

Exercise considerations. B Physical activity done with peripheral neuropathy necessitates proper foot care to prevent, detect, and prevent problems early to avoid ulceration and amputation.

B The presence of autonomic neuropathy may complicate being active; certain precautions are warranted to prevent problems during activity. C Vigorous aerobic or resistance exercise; jumping, jarring, head-down activities; and breath holding should be avoided in anyone with severe nonproliferative and unstable proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

E Exercise does not accelerate progression of kidney disease and can be undertaken safely, even during dialysis sessions. C Regular stretching and appropriate progression of activities should be done to manage joint changes and diabetes-related orthopedic limitations.

Table 5 Physical activity consideration, precautions, and recommended activities for exercising with health-related complications. Health complication. All activities okay. Consider exercising in a supervised cardiac rehabilitation program, at least initially.

Exertional angina Onset of chest pain on exertion, but exercise-induced ischemia may be silent in some with diabetes.

Hypertension Both aerobic and resistance training may lower resting blood pressure and should be encouraged. Some blood pressure medications can cause exercise-related hypotension. Ensure adequate hydration during exercise.

Avoid Valsalva maneuver during resistance training. Myocardial infarction Stop exercise immediately should symptoms of myocardial infarction such as chest pain, radiating pain, shortness of breath, and others occur during physical activity and seek medical attention.

Restart exercise after myocardial infarction in a supervised cardiac rehabilitation program. Start at a low intensity and progress as able to more moderate activities. Both aerobic and resistance exercise are okay.

Stroke Diabetes increases the risk of ischemic stroke. Restart exercise after stroke in a supervised cardiac rehabilitation program.

Congestive heart failure Most common cause is coronary artery disease and frequently follows a myocardial infarction. Avoid activities that cause an excessive rise in heart rate. Focus more on doing low- or moderate-intensity activities.

Peripheral artery disease Lower-extremity resistance training improves functional performance All other activities okay. Consider inclusion of more non—weight-bearing activities, particularly if gait altered. Local foot deformity Manage with appropriate footwear and choice of activities to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk Focus more on non—weight-bearing activities to reduce undue plantar pressures.

Examine feet daily to detect and treat blisters, sores, or ulcers early. Weight-bearing activity should be avoided with unhealed ulcers. Amputation sites should be properly cared for daily.

Avoid jogging. Autonomic neuropathy May cause postural hypotension, chronotropic incompetence, delayed gastric emptying, altered thermoregulation, and dehydration during exercise 6. Exercise-related hypoglycemia may be harder to treat in those with gastroparesis.

With autonomic neuropathy, avoid exercise in hot environments and hydrate well. All activities okay with mild, but annual eye exam should be performed to monitor progression. Severe nonproliferative and unstable proliferative retinopathy Individuals with unstable diabetic retinopathy are at risk for vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment.

No exercise should be undertaken during a vitreous hemorrhage. Cataracts Cataracts do not impact the ability to exercise, only the safety of doing so due to loss of visual acuity.

Avoid activities that are more dangerous due to limited vision, such as outdoor cycling. Consider supervision for certain activities. Overt nephropathy Both aerobic and resistance training improve physical function and quality of life in individuals with kidney disease. Individuals should be encouraged to be active.

End-stage renal disease Doing supervised, moderate aerobic physical activity undertaken during dialysis sessions may be beneficial and increase compliance Electrolytes should be monitored when activity done during dialysis sessions.

Strengthen muscles around affected joints with resistance training. Avoid activities that increase plantar pressures with Charcot foot changes.

Arthritis Common in lower-extremity joints, particularly in older adults who are overweight or obese. Participation in regular physical activity is possible and should be encouraged.

Moderate activity may improve joint symptoms and alleviate pain. C For adults with type 2 diabetes, Internet-delivered interventions for physical activity promotion may be used to improve outcomes.

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Sheri R. ColbergRonald J. SigalJane E. YardleyMichael C. RiddellSugat W. Exercise and blood sugar balance in elderly individuals

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