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Caffeine and endurance

Caffeine and endurance

Sixteen Nutritional supplement for hair health trained cyclists Autophagy and hypoxia three trials. McLellan TM, Endurqnce GH, Voss Endjrance, Tate C, Caffeine and endurance SJR: Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. Another recent study looked at the effects of consuming a caffeinated sports drink on performance in a warm environment. In this study Guest et al. In total, 8.

Caffeine and endurance -

A study was also excluded based on the fact that participants were assigned groups based on genotype which is related to caffeine sensitivity [ 36 ]. A summary of the studies which reported time and power output are presented in Tables 1 and 2 , respectively.

A total of 57 trials from 44 studies were identified and included in the final analysis Tables 1 and 2. The number of participants across all trials totalled , with participants included in the studies which reported time, and participants included in studies which reported power output.

Of the total participants across all trials 82 were female and one study did not specify the gender of the participants and so were assumed to be male [ 48 ]. The mean age of participants and their VO 2max were One study did not report the age of participants [ 46 ], and 10 studies did not report VO 2max or VO 2peak values of participants [ 38 , 41 , 43 , 46 , 48 , 50 , 51 , 73 , 77 , 80 ].

Of the different protocols used to measure time trial performance 23 studies used time to complete a set distance [ 38 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 62 , 63 , 66 , 70 ], 13 used time to complete a set amount of work [ 37 , 39 , 49 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 64 , 65 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 71 , 76 ], and 9 studies used amount of work done in a set amount of time [ 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 ].

Forty-one trials administered caffeine 60 min prior to exercise with the remainder of studies administering caffeine at 30 min [ 46 ], 45 min [ 44 , 58 , 73 ], 55 min [ 63 ], 75 min [ 53 ] 90 min [ 54 , 59 , 61 , 65 , 69 ], and — min [ 56 ] prior to exercise.

The mean caffeine dose administered was 5. Cycling was the most common form of exercise used by 33 of the 44 studies 41 trials , while 4 studies 6 trials used running [ 38 , 47 , 48 , 54 ], and 2 studies used double poling Nordic skiing [ 44 , 58 ], 3 studies 4 trials used rowing [ 40 , 46 , 73 ], 1 study used triathlon [ 43 ] and one study used swimming [ 50 ].

Twenty studies 21 trials used a pre-load exercise protocol which requires exercise of a fixed duration being completed immediately before the time trial portion [ 39 , 44 , 45 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 58 , 59 , 63 , 64 , 67 , 68 , 71 , 72 , 74 , 75 , 77 , 78 , 79 ].

The mean total exercise duration was Overall, caffeine time-trials were faster compared to placebo by 2. Similarly, power output in caffeine trials were greater compared to placebo trials by 2. Only two trials [ 37 , 38 ] showed a slower time trial time following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo.

However, 4 trials 3 studies [ 41 , 42 , 56 ] had lower MPO during caffeine trials compared to placebo. Mean percent improvement in time trial performance time following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo trial.

PLA placebo trials; CAFF caffeine trials. SMD standard mean difference; CI confidence interval. Mean percent improvement in time trial performance MPO following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo trial. The mean PEDro score across all studies was 9.

According to the funnel plots Figs. Funnel plot of standard mean difference against standard error for time-trial completion time. se SMD standard error of the mean difference; SMD standard mean difference; CI confidence interval. Funnel plot of standard mean difference against standard error for MPO.

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically evaluate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance time-trial performance. These findings are similar to Ganio et al.

However, an earlier meta-analysis by Doherty et al. They found an increase in endurance performance during cycling tests of However, the analysis by Doherty et al. Meta-regression analysis showed no association between caffeine dose, VO 2 , exercise duration, and exercise mode and mean performance improvement between caffeine and placebo.

As seen in Figs. A number of factors can influence individual responses and metabolism of caffeine including smoking [ 82 ], age [ 83 ], and gender [ 84 ].

Smoking increases enzyme activity which causes caffeine to be metabolised faster [ 82 ]. Likewise, the older an individual is, the slower the rate of caffeine metabolism in the body [ 83 ].

Gender can also play a large role on the rate of caffeine metabolism such that women metabolise caffeine at different rates which is dependent on the stage of the menstrual cycle, as well as the use of oral-contraceptives, which can prolong the half-life of caffeine in the body [ 84 ]. Thus, when conducting caffeine supplementation studies, factors such as sex, age and smoking status should be taken into consideration when designing the study and comparisons that will be made.

Genetics has also been shown to contribute to the variability in responses to caffeine ingestion [ 85 ]. Specifically the CYP1A2 and ADORA2A genes have been identified as large contributors to caffeine metabolism and caffeine sensitivity, respectively [ 85 ].

Caffeine typically has a half-life of 3—5 h in healthy adults, therefore those with a faster metabolism may not experience the ergogenic effects of caffeine for the duration of an event if it is metabolised prior to the end of the exercise in long duration activities such as, marathons, triathlons and ultra-endurance events.

Only one study included in the present review conducted genetic analysis pertaining to caffeine metabolism [ 57 ]. Womack et al. However, more research is needed to determine the effects of CYP1A2 genotype on the ergogenicity of caffeine as well as controlling for confounding variables such as other genetic factors ADORA2A and epigenetic factors such as, age, smoking, gender and ethnicity.

The ADORA2A gene encodes for certain adenosine receptors found predominantly in the brain. As caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist it is likely that variations in the ADORA2A gene will affect the actions of caffeine on the adenosine receptor.

Little research exists on ADORA2A and the effects it could have on caffeine and exercise. Loy et al. As seen in Fig. However, each group only consisted of 6 participants which limits the impact of the finding, but still suggests that ADORA2A genotype may have a large effect on the effectiveness of caffeine supplementation for endurance exercise.

Significantly more work needs to be conducted to determine the role genetics could potentially play on the ergogenicity of caffeine as well as other popular supplements in order to fully maximise its effects. The fastest official half-marathon time is 58 min 23 s.

With the average performance increase found across the studies presented here being 2. Therefore, whether or not an athlete consumes caffeine prior or during an endurance event may have a large impact on the overall results.

However, many of the studies included in this review were conducted on recreationally trained athletes and not of the elite level, thus it is possible that the proposed effect of caffeine is not generalisable to elite level athletes. Athletes may also want to familiarise themselves with caffeine consumption during training and find the consumption protocol which provides the best possible effects for their own individual needs.

To date, not enough research exists for individualised recommendations, thus it is up to the athlete and training staff to determine the best timing, dosage and method to consume caffeine for the athletes training and competition needs.

The present meta-analysis does not include time-to-exhaustion studies as they have greater variability and less reliability than time-trial studies [ 7 ]. Furthermore, cycling is the main exercise modality used in these studies, most likely due to the ease of measurement when using a cycle ergometer.

However, results may vary when other exercise modalities are employed in the testing protocols, but a larger variety of exercise modalities would provide stronger evidence for the ergogenic effects of caffeine on endurance performance in multiple sports.

Additionally, many of the participants used in the included studies were recreationally trained athletes, and further studies comparing the differences in the ergogenicity of caffeine between recreational and elite athletes is warranted. As a result, there are many studies that have begun investigating the effects of caffeine in combination with other popular supplements, however, more work is still required in this area.

The results of the present meta-analysis indicate caffeine has a small positive effect 2. However, large inter-individual responses to caffeine ingestion still exist and reasons for this variance between individuals should be further explored and taken into consideration when prescribing caffeine supplementation for athletes.

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The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. Int J Pharm. Maher CG, Sherrington C, Herbert RD, Moseley AM, Elkins M. Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials.

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The effects of caffeine ingestion on time trial cycling performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. CAS Google Scholar. Ivy JL, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Lower RW. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. Med Sci Sports. Hogervorst E, Riedel W, Kovacs E, Brouns F, Jolles J.

Caffeine improves cognitive performance after strenuous physical exercise. Int J Sports Med. Anderson ME, Bruce CR, Fraser SF, Stepto NK, Klein R, Hopkins WG, et al. Improved meter rowing performance in competitive oarswomen after caffeine ingestion.

Bruce CR, Anderson ME, Fraser SF, Stepto NK, Klein R, Hopkins WG, et al. Enhancement of m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Bridge CA, Jones MA. The effect of caffeine ingestion on 8 km run performance in a field setting.

J Sports Sci. Wiles JD, Coleman D, Tegerdine M, Swaine IL. The effects of caffeine ingestion on performance time, speed and power during a laboratory-based 1 km cycling time-trial.

Clarke ND, Richardson DL, Thie J, Taylor R. Coffee ingestion enhances one-mile running race performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Kovacs EMR, Stegen JHCH, Brouns F.

Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and performance. J Appl Physiol. Spence AL, Sim M, Landers G, Peeling P. A comparison of caffeine versus pseudoephedrine on cycling time-trial performance.

van Nieuwenhoven MA, Brouns F, Kovacs EMR. The effect of two sports drinks and water on GI complaints and performance during an km run. Hulston CJ, Jeukendrup AE. Substrate metabolism and exercise performance with caffeine and carbohydrate intake.

Hunter AM, St Clair Gibson A, Collins M, Lambert M, Noakes TD. Caffeine ingestion does not alter performance during a km cycling time-trial performance.

Combined caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion: effects on nocturnal sleep and exercise performance in athletes. Caffeine is ergogenic for adenosine A2A receptor gene ADORA2A T allele homozygotes: a pilot study. J Caffeine Res. Roelands B, Buyse L, Pauwels F, Delbeke F, Deventer K, Meeusen R. No effect of caffeine on exercise performance in high ambient temperature.

Cohen BS, Nelson AG, Prevost MC, Thompson GD, Marx BD, Morris GS. Effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance racing in heat and humidity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Jacobson TL, Febbraio MA, Arkinstall MJ, Hawley JA. Effect of caffeine co-ingested with carbohydrate or fat on metabolism and performance in endurance-trained men.

Exp Physiol. Skinner TL, Jenkins DG, Coombes JS, Taaffe DR, Leveritt MD. Dose response of caffeine on m rowing performance. Bortolotti H, Altimari LR, Vitor-Costa M, Cyrino ES.

Performance during a km cycling time-trial after caffeine ingestion. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar.

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Potgieter S, Wright HH, Smith C. Caffeine improves triathlon performance: a field study in males and females. Stadheim HK, Nossum EM, Olsen R, Spencer M, Jensen J. Caffeine improves performance in double poling during acute exposure to m altitude.

Acker-Hewitt TL, Shafer BM, Saunders MJ, Goh Q, Luden ND. Independent and combined effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on aerobic cycling performance in the fed state. Carr AJ, Gore CJ, Dawson B. Induced alkalosis and caffeine supplementation: effects on m rowing performance.

Church DD, Hoffman JR, LaMonica MB, Riffe JJ, Hoffman MW, Baker KM, et al. The effect of an acute ingestion of Turkish coffee on reaction time and time trial performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr BioMed Central.

Caffeine has a small effect on 5-km running performance of well-trained and recreational runners. J Sci Med Sport. Desbrow B, Barret CM, Minahan CL, Grant GD, Leveritt MD. Caffeine, cycling performance, and exogenous CHO oxidation. Med Sci Sport Exerc. MacIntosh BR, Wright BM. Caffeine ingestion and performance of a 1,metre swim.

Can J Appl Physiol. Kilding AE, Overton C, Gleave J. Effects of Caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, and their combined ingestion on high-intensity cycling performance. Dean S, Braakhuis A, Paton C. The effects of EGCG on fat oxidation and endurance performance in male cyclists.

Guest N, Corey P, Vescovi J, El-Sohemy A. Caffeine, CYP1A2 genotype, and endurance performance in athletes. Bell DG, McLellan TM, Sabiston CM. Effect of ingesting caffeine and ephedrine on km run performance. Increases in cycling performance in response to caffeine ingestion are repeatable.

Nutr Res. Skinner TL, Jenkins DG, Taaffe DR, Leveritt MD, Coombes JS. Coinciding exercise with peak serum caffeine does not improve cycling performance. Womack CJ, Saunders MJ, Bechtel MK, Bolton DJ, Martin M, Luden ND, et al. The influence of a CYP1A2 polymorphism on the ergogenic effects of caffeine.

Stadheim HK, Kvamme B, Olsen R, Drevon CA, Ivy JL, Jensen J. Caffeine increases performance in cross-country double-poling time trial exercise. Desbrow B, Biddulph C, Devlin B, Grant GD, Anoopkumar- Dukie S, Leveritt MD.

The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance. Goncalves LS, Painelli VS, Yamaguchi G, de Oliveira LF, Saunders B, da Silva RP, et al. Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation.

Caffeine withdrawal and high-intensity endurance cycling performance. Felippe LC, Ferreira GA, Learsi SK, Boari D, Bertuzzi R, Lima-Silva AE. Caffeine increases both total work performed above critical power and peripheral fatigue during a 4-km cycling time trial.

Graham-Paulson T, Perret C, Goosey-Tolfrey V. Improvements in cycling but not handcycling 10 km time trial performance in habitual caffeine users. Article PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Cox GR, Desbrow B, Montgomery PG, Anderson ME, Bruce CR, Macrides TA, et al. Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance.

Quinlivan A, Irwin C, Grant GD, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Skinner T, Leveritt M, et al. The effects of red bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

Glaister M, Pattison JR, Muniz-Pumares D, Patterson SD, Foley P. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on km cycling time trial performance. Conway KJ, Orr R, Stannard SR.

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The effect of caffeine ingestion on human neutrophil oxidative burst responses following time-trial cycling. Pitchford NW, Fell JW, Leveritt MD, Desbrow B, Shing CM.

Effect of caffeine on cycling time-trial performance in the heat. de Santos R, Dal Molin P, Kiss MA, Silva-Cavalcante MD, Correia-Oliveira CR, Bertuzzi R, Bishop DJ, et al.

Caffeine alters anaerobic distribution and pacing during a m cycling time trial. PLoS One. Hodgson AB, Randell RK, Jeukendrup AE.

The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. Collomp K, Candau R, Millet G, Mucci P, Borrani F, Préfaut C, et al.

Effects of salbutamol and caffeine ingestion on exercise metabolism and performance. First, caffeine worked. The riders lasted 14 percent longer when they got the real stuff 5 minutes and 55 seconds rather than the placebo 5 minutes and 14 seconds.

Second, as Terry Graham told me back in , caffeine did seem to help the muscles themselves. Here are the results from electrically stimulating the quadriceps muscles, showing how much the evoked muscle contraction weakened as the riders fatigued.

The blue dots show the placebo trials, and the red squares show the caffeine trials:. But by the percent mark, the muscles have lost nearly 40 percent of their initial force in the placebo trial, compared to less than 35 percent with caffeine. By the time the riders reach exhaustion in the placebo trial PLAex , their quads are shot, with the electric jolt generating 60 percent less force than when they were fresh.

Eventually, the riders reach exhaustion even in the caffeine trial CAFex , by which time their quads are just as shot as they were at exhaustion in the placebo trial. In other words, it looks as though caffeine delays the loss of muscle function—and perhaps, though this remains controversial, the moment the riders give up is dictated by finally reaching that higher level of muscle fatigue.

But the brain—or, more broadly, the central nervous system that generates and transmits the signal telling the muscles to contract—also seems to play a role. In this case, VA declined during the placebo trials: the more tired the subjects got, the weaker the signals from their brain became.

With caffeine, on the other hand, the signals never declined. Even right after reaching exhaustion, their brains were still enthusiastically exhorting their muscles to contract.

It also depends on how efficiently the message is transmitted through various parts of your brain and down your spinal cord, both of which might be enhanced by caffeine. Caffeine seems to keep oxygen flowing through their arteries, with only a mild decrease at exhaustion compared to the steady decline seen in the placebo trials.

All of this starts to feel like one of those Agatha Christie novels where all 14 major characters turn out to have a dark secret that makes them a plausible suspect in the murder.

If caffeine does everything, how do we figure out which effects are the ones that matter? The standard athletic protocol , which many athletes fail to follow , is three to six milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight, which works out to to milligrams for a pound person, taken an hour before your event starts.

Given that caffeine is so widely used in day-to-day life and is not restricted by anti-doping agencies, I have no objections to its use. For more Sweat Science, join me on Twitter and Facebook , sign up for the email newsletter , and check out my book Endure: Mind, Body, and the Curiously Elastic Limits of Human Performanc e.

Journal of the International Endruance of Sports Nutrition volume ehduranceCaffeihe number: 1 Cite Nutritional supplement for hair health article. Metrics details. Following critical Renew Energy and Vitality of the available literature abd date, The International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN position regarding caffeine intake is as follows:. Supplementation with caffeine has been shown to acutely enhance various aspects of exercise performance in many but not all studies. Small to moderate benefits of caffeine use include, but are not limited to: muscular endurance, movement velocity and muscular strength, sprinting, jumping, and throwing performance, as well as a wide range of aerobic and anaerobic sport-specific actions.

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Kidney body cleanse a result, there is currently a need to objectively quantify the ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance time-trial performance, particularly from more enduracne studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis Joint health natural remedies presented using the Preferred Method Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement format as suggested by PRISMA [ 15 ].

For clarity, a study will refer to a whole published article which may include multiple trials. In August a literature search was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews Fig. A search of Web of Science, PUBMED, Scopus, and ProQuest was carried out using a combination of the keywords: caffeine, caffeinated, coffee, exercise, endurance, performance, time trial.

The PUBMED search is shown below. After the initial search was completed, duplicates were removed and title and abstracts of remaining studies were screened for eligibility.

The remaining studies were read in full and assessed for eligibility and included in the final review and analysis. Attempts were made to contact authors for missing information. As many studies often combined caffeine with carbohydrate ingestion, studies that had co-ingestives taken with caffeine were included only if the effect of caffeine could be isolated such that identical solutions were given to participants, one with caffeine and one without.

This led to any studies that used energy drinks being excluded from the review as caffeine was not isolated in these studies. Studies using caffeinated gum were also excluded from this review as the rate of absorption and bioavailability of caffeine from gum differs from that of capsules and tablets [ 16 ].

Only studies written in English were included in this review. TT performance had to have been reported in either time or a measure of power output total work done, mean power output, relative power output to be included in the meta-analysis.

Studies taking place in extreme environments high altitude, high or low temperatures were included only if both placebo and caffeine conditions took place in the same extreme environment.

Study quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale PEDro [ 17 ]. The PEDro scale has been shown to be an acceptable method of reliably assessing the internal validity of randomised control trials [ 17 ].

The PEDro scale scores studies using an point scale with a maximum of 10 points being awarded to a single study. The first point is awarded for stating eligibility criteria and is not included in the final score.

Items assess randomisation, blinding, attrition, selective reporting and statistical analysis and a point is awarded if the criteria are sufficiently met.

S and moderated by A. Data were extracted and placed into spreadsheets and later summarised Tables 1 and 2. Studies were grouped by the method of reporting performance outcomes. Those studies which measured endurance performance using time were grouped together Table 1and those which reported endurance performance outcomes as a measure of power total work done, mean power output, relative power output were grouped together Table 2.

This standardised outcome variables across the studies in each table. Some studies reported both time and power output variables as endurance performance outcomes and were thus included in both tables Tables 1 and 2.

Total exercise duration was calculated by adding pre-load exercise duration to mean placebo TT duration. Placebo and caffeine TT durations were different for time to completion trials but were the same in trials which recorded work completed in a set amount of time.

Total work done during TT was converted to MPO by dividing mean total work done during TT by mean placebo TT duration. Relative PO was converted to MPO by multiplying mean relative PO by the mean body mass of the sample.

Mean percentage change was calculated between treatment and placebo groups for both time to complete TT and MPO during TT. Effect size and meta-regression analysis was carried out using STATA meta-analysis metan and meta-regression metareg software packages StataCorp.

Stata Statistical Software: Release College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC. Studies were ordered based on their mean effects size from smallest to largest. Meta-regression analysis was carried out to examine the impact of the variables of VO 2exercise mode, exercise duration and caffeine dose on the effect of caffeine on endurance performance compared to placebo.

The literature searches of the databases returned a total of potentially eligible studies Fig. The results from the searches of each database were collated and duplicates were removed leaving remaining records. The titles and abstracts of the remaining studies were then screened for an isolated effect of caffeine, a measure of endurance performance, and an acceptable exercise protocol containing a TT component.

Following screening, 61 studies remained and were read in full to ensure studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the studies that were read in full two were removed as they were additional publications from previous studies [ 2021 ], six studies did not provide sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis [ 222324252627 ].

Two studies were excluded as the exercise durations were less than 5 min [ 2829 ]. A study was also excluded based on the fact that participants were assigned groups based on genotype which is related to caffeine sensitivity [ 36 ]. A summary of the studies which reported time and power output are presented in Tables 1 and 2respectively.

A total of 57 trials from 44 studies were identified and included in the final analysis Tables 1 and 2. The number of participants across all trials totalledwith participants included in the studies which reported time, and participants included in studies which reported power output.

Of the total participants across all trials 82 were female and one study did not specify the gender of the participants and so were assumed to be male [ 48 ]. The mean age of participants and their VO 2max were One study did not report the age of participants [ 46 ], and 10 studies did not report VO 2max or VO 2peak values of participants [ 38414346485051737780 ].

Of the different protocols used to measure time trial performance 23 studies used time to complete a set distance [ 3840414243444546474850515253545556575862636670 ], 13 used time to complete a set amount of work [ 37394959606164656768697176 ], and 9 studies used amount of work done in a set amount of time [ 7273747577787980 ].

Forty-one trials administered caffeine 60 min prior to exercise with the remainder of studies administering caffeine at 30 min [ 46 ], 45 min [ 445873 ], 55 min [ 63 ], 75 min [ 53 ] 90 min [ 5459616569 ], and — min [ 56 ] prior to exercise.

The mean caffeine dose administered was 5. Cycling was the most common form of exercise used by 33 of the 44 studies 41 trialswhile 4 studies 6 trials used running [ 38474854 ], and 2 studies used double poling Nordic skiing [ 4458 ], 3 studies 4 trials used rowing [ 404673 ], 1 study used triathlon [ 43 ] and one study used swimming [ 50 ].

Twenty studies 21 trials used a pre-load exercise protocol which requires exercise of a fixed duration being completed immediately before the time trial portion [ 39444550515258596364676871727475777879 ]. The mean total exercise duration was Overall, caffeine time-trials were faster compared to placebo by 2.

Similarly, power output in caffeine trials were greater compared to placebo trials by 2. Only two trials [ 3738 ] showed a slower time trial time following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo.

However, 4 trials 3 studies [ 414256 ] had lower MPO during caffeine trials compared to placebo. Mean percent improvement in time trial performance time following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo trial. PLA placebo trials; CAFF caffeine trials. SMD standard mean difference; CI confidence interval.

Mean percent improvement in time trial performance MPO following caffeine ingestion compared to placebo trial. The mean PEDro score across all studies was 9.

According to the funnel plots Figs. Funnel plot of standard mean difference against standard error for time-trial completion time. se SMD standard error of the mean difference; SMD standard mean difference; CI confidence interval.

Funnel plot of standard mean difference against standard error for MPO. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically evaluate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on endurance time-trial performance.

These findings are similar to Ganio et al. However, an earlier meta-analysis by Doherty et al. They found an increase in endurance performance during cycling tests of However, the analysis by Doherty et al.

: Caffeine and endurance

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Understandably so, endurance athletes are always in search of a boost in energy and performance. More often than not, caffeine is the go-to for athletes.

But is caffeine truly an ergogenic aid and is it safe? According to American College of Sports Medicine, caffeine may be the most widely used stimulant in the world. It can come in many forms such as coffee, nutrition supplements, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks and chocolate.

Caffeine can reach its highest levels in the blood approximately one hour after ingestion. It can have a stimulant effect on the brain as well as affect blood pressure, pulse rate, stomach acid production and fat stores.

Many athletes use caffeine as a potential ergogenic aid and performance enhancer. Caffeine may help mobilize fat stores, enabling the body to use fat as its primary fuel source.

This latter effect of caffeine used to be considered the major mechanism by which is enhanced endurance performance, but it is not known to be a minor factor. In fact, for those who normally maintain a high-carbohydrate diet it is virtually a non-factor.

A number of studies have shown significant performance increases in various endurance disciplines following caffeine ingestion. In one study, elite runners improved their time in a treadmill run to exhaustion by 1. Caffeine boosted time to exhaustion in a cycling test by 15 minutes in another study.

Caffeine is a diuretic, meaning that it increases urine production, which could theoretically exacerbate dehydration during exercise. However, exercise negates this effect if caffeine. This review, contrary to popular beliefs, proposes that caffeine consumption does not result in the following: a water-electrolyte imbalances or hyperthermia and b reduced exercise-heat tolerance.

Caffeine is commonly used by endurance athletes 30 to 60 minutes before races to enhance competitive performance. The ergogenic effect of caffeine is dose-dependent.

The maximum effect is seen with doses of 5 to 6 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. The minimum amount of caffeine the average runner must consume for a measurable ergogenic effect is about 2 mg per kilogram of body weight. It makes less sense to use caffeine as a daily workout performance enhancer, for two reasons.

First, workouts are seldom maximal efforts. Second, the ergogenic effects of caffeine consumption decrease with habituation. For a cooler However, for longer duration events anything longer than 2 hours , heat management becomes a crucial part of performance, and too much caffeine can negatively impact that aspect of exercise.

The steady, relatively low supply of 25mg in Kona Mocha Liquid Shot helps maintain that sweet spot of caffeination while still allowing you to carb fuel appropriately throughout a several-hour event. Did you find this post interesting and valuable or was it a waste of your time?

If so, leave a comment below and we'll get back to you right away. You are eligible for free shipping! Check out. Start shopping. Left Right. Search Shop Community Who We Are My Rewards. Account Search Cart. Shop Toggle menu Daily Toggle menu HALO MultiV MultiV-PRO Optygen OptygenHP.

PreRace Liquid Shot EFS Drink Mix EFS-PRO High Carb. Athletes Articles Films. Caffeine and Endurance Performance. Well-documented benefits Caffeine works in the body in multiple ways that are beneficial to performance.

Dialing the dose. My caffeine routine This is why I was very happy to see First Endurance keep the caffeine dose to 25mg for the Kona Mocha Liquid Shot. Share Facebook Share on Facebook Twitter Share on Twitter Pinterest Pin it.

Can Avoiding Caffeine Boost Your Athletic Performance? | Scientific American Few investigations on aerobic [ 69 , 74 , 75 , 76 , ] and anaerobic [ 72 , 73 , 78 ] changes in performance, as well as cognitive function [ 70 , 71 ] and performance [ 77 ], following CMR have been conducted to date Table 5. CAS Google Scholar Astrup A, Toubro S, Cannon S: Caffeine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. This systematic review and meta-analysis is presented using the Preferred Method Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement format as suggested by PRISMA [ 15 ]. As previously stated, Crowe et al. For example, in one study that included a sample size of 13 participants, ingestion of caffeine in the morning hours negatively affected sleep only in one participant [ ]. The problem is that the caffeine restriction period varies in many studies, with depriving source-food of 6 h up to days Collomp et al.
Was this article useful? This occurs because the current literature is ambiguous regarding the relationship between caffeine intake and improvement in strength-to-power. CAS Google Scholar Ivy JL, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Lower RW. Information on the blinding process of supplementation is also well-regarded in future studies since the placebo effect was suggested by one of the studies among different fitness status Brooks et al. Ranchordas MK, Pratt H, Parsons M, et al. These considerations will also be in conjunction with the possibility that an athlete will benefit from caffeine in endurance-based exercise as determined in part, by their CYP1A2 genotype, albeit with a clear need for future research. Christensen PM, Petersen MH, Friis SN, Bangsbo J. Beck et al.
International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance Inter-individual Caffeine and endurance in caffeine ergogenicity, and a move towards personalised sports nutrition. The endjrance of a dose-dependent Caffeine and endurance enduranfe in CCaffeine with previously Caffeine and endurance investigations [ 8Protein intake for seniors3240 ]. Harland B: Nad and nutrition. Faster Recovery: Caffeine consumption post-exercise has been associated with faster muscle glycogen replenishment, aiding in recovery after intense workouts. Collomp K, Ahmaidi S, Chatard JC, Audran M, Prefaut Ch: Benefits of caffeine ingestion on sprint performance in trained and untrained swimmers. Google Scholar Beaumont RE, James LJ. Upstairs, caffeine can work in the brain to prevent adenosine from binding to receptors, helping an athlete feel more alertness and less fatigue — effects that people around the world take advantage of daily with coffee, tea, energy drinks, etc.
The Benefits of Caffeine for Endurance Athletes Nutritional supplement for hair health details on these studies Caffeine and endurance be found in Table 7. Sorry, endurande shareable link is not currently wnd for this article. That means going cold-turkey for ten days to two weeks. Effect of a high and low dose of caffeine on antigen-stimulated activation of human natural killer cells after prolonged cycling. Edited by: Louise DeldicqueCatholic University of Louvain, Belgium. Can J Appl Physiol.

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