Category: Moms

Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness

Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness

It Awarenese Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness snd post-anodal tDCS Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness the Broca region increased Enanced vocabulary scores compared to pre-anodal tDCS Schneider and Hopp, Functoin often instruct participants to relax during long-duration off-line stimulatory Braih. Auditory Stress relief at home in schizophrenia are connected with increased left temporoparietal cortical excitability Silbersweig et al. Both active and sham rTMS improved clinical global impression CGI and ADHD-IV scores with no significant side effects. Pharmaceuticals such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, or modafinil, as well as antidementia medications such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are at the center of public debate about cognitive enhancement. Practice makes permanent, and that goes for brain function, too.

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Learning new skills may improve your thinking ability, too. For example, one study found that older adults who learned quilting or digital photography had more memory improvement than those who only socialized or did less cognitively demanding activities.

Some of the research on engagement in activities such as music, theater, dance, and creative writing has shown promise for improving quality of life and well-being in older adults, from better memory and self-esteem to reduced stress and increased social interaction.

However, a recent, comprehensive report reviewing the design and findings of these and other studies did not find strong evidence that these types of activities have a lasting, beneficial effect on cognition. Additional research is needed, and in large numbers of diverse older adults, to be able to say definitively whether these activities may help reduce decline or maintain healthy cognition.

Lots of activities can keep your mind active. For example, read books and magazines. Play games. Take or teach a class. Learn a new skill or hobby. Work or volunteer. These types of mentally stimulating activities have not been proven to prevent serious cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's diseasebut they can be fun!

Some scientists have argued that such activities may protect the brain by establishing "cognitive reserve. Some types of cognitive training conducted in a research setting also seem to have benefits.

For the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly ACTIVE trialhealthy adults 65 and older participated in 10 sessions of memory training, reasoning training, or processing-speed training.

The sessions improved participants' mental skills in the area in which they were trained with evidence suggesting these benefits persisted for two years. Be wary of claims that playing certain computer and online games can improve your memory and other types of thinking as evidence to back up such claims is evolving.

There is currently not enough evidence available to suggest that computer-based brain training applications offered commercially have the same impact on cognitive abilities as the ACTIVE study training.

NIA and other organizations are supporting research to determine whether different types of cognitive training have lasting effects. For more information, see Participating in Activities You Enjoy. Connecting with other people through social activities and community programs can keep your brain active and help you feel less isolated and more engaged with the world around you.

Participating in social activities may lower the risk for some health problems and improve well-being. People who engage in personally meaningful and productive activities with others tend to live longer, boost their mood, and have a sense of purpose.

Studies show that these activities seem to help maintain their well-being and may improve their cognitive function. So, visit with family and friends. Consider volunteering for a local organization or join a group focused on a hobby you enjoy. Join a walking group with other older adults. Check out programs available through your Area Agency on Agingsenior center, or other community organizations.

Increasingly, there are groups that meet online too, providing a way to connect from home with others who share your interests or to get support. We don't know for sure yet if any of these actions can prevent or delay Alzheimer's and age-related cognitive decline.

Still, some of these have been associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stress is a natural part of life. Short-term stress can even focus our thoughts and motivate us to take action.

To help manage stress and build the ability to bounce back from stressful situations, there are many things you can do:. Geneticenvironmentaland lifestyle factors are all thought to influence cognitive health.

Some of these factors may contribute to a decline in thinking skills and the ability to perform everyday tasks such as driving, paying bills, taking medicine, and cooking.

Genetic factors are passed down inherited from a parent to child and cannot be controlled. But many environmental and lifestyle factors can be changed or managed to reduce your risk. These factors include:. Many health conditions affect the brain and pose risks to cognitive function.

These conditions include:. It's important to prevent or seek treatment for these health problems. They affect your brain as well as your body and receiving treatment for other conditions may help prevent or delay cognitive decline or thinking problems.

Older adults are at higher risk of falls, car accidents, and other accidents that can cause brain injury. Alcohol and certain medicines can affect a person's ability to drive safely and also increase the risk for accidents and brain injury.

Learn about risks for falls and participate in fall prevention programs. Wear helmets and seat belts to help prevent head injuries as well. Overcoming this fear can help you stay active, maintain your physical health, and prevent future falls.

Some drugs and combinations of medicines can affect a person's thinking and the way the brain works. For example, certain ones can cause confusion, memory loss, hallucinations, and delusions in older adults. Medicines can also interact with food, dietary supplements, alcohol, and other substances.

Some of these interactions can affect how your brain functions. Drugs that can harm older adults' cognition include:. Lack of exercise and other physical activity may increase your risk of diabetes, heart disease, depression, and stroke — all of which can harm the brain.

In some studies, physical activity has been linked to improved cognitive performance and reduced risk for Alzheimer's disease. In general, staying active is known to lower the risk of high blood pressure, stroke, and symptoms of depression, all of which in turn can improve cognitive health.

A number of studies link eating certain foods with keeping the brain healthy and suggest that other foods can increase health risk. For example, high-fat and high-sodium foods can lead to health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes, that can harm the brain.

Smoking is harmful to your body and your brain. It raises the risk of heart attack, stroke, and lung disease. Quitting smoking at any age can improve your health. Drinking too much alcohol affects the brain by slowing or impairing communication among brain cells.

This can lead to slurred speech, fuzzy memory, drowsiness, and dizziness. Long-term effects may include changes in balance, memory, emotions, coordination, and body temperature. Staying away from alcohol can reverse some of these changes.

: Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness

Cognitive enhancers - Alcohol and Drug Foundation Introduction It is well known that exercise generally enhances cognitive function 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , Clinical applications of neurotechnologies offer alternatives to pharmaceutical approaches and devices for diseases that have been fatal, so far. Burmeister, J. See " Scientists Discover Why Exercise Makes You Smarter. Learn about risks for falls and participate in fall prevention programs. Gaudry, K.
Cognitive Health and Older Adults | National Institute on Aging Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for depressive disorders: current knowledge and future directions. Dementia risk communication. Health Part B 21 , — The authors are of the opinion that as it is difficult to predict the precise future trajectory of neuroscience, BCIs, and brain augmentation technologies, it is similarly difficult to predict neuroethics, i. Desai, A.
Eight Habits That Improve Cognitive Function | Psychology Today All participants had Fynction or corrected-to-normal vision and Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness known neurological Hydrating sheet masks. A cognitive Fujction program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from Enhabced Improvement in Memory with Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness Adaptive Cognitive Training IMPACT study. Public Health 9 Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Silvanto, J. A study from Michigan State found that childhood participation in arts and crafts leads to innovationpatents, and increases the odds of starting a business as an adult. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
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February 15, Practicing a new and challenging activity is a good bet for building and maintaining cognitive skills. Prep your brain These tips can support your new brain training endeavor: Pick one new activity. Do the right activity No matter which new activity you choose, make sure it follows three guidelines in order to maximize brain training, according to Dr.

Share This Page Share this page to Facebook Share this page to Twitter Share this page via Email. The findings reveal that less-demanding activities, such as listening to classical music or simply completing word puzzles, probably don't provide noticeable benefits to an aging mind and brain.

Older adults have long been encouraged to stay active and to flex their memory and learning like any muscle that you have to "use or lose. When you are inside your comfort zone you may be outside of the enhancement zone.

Another study, from , found that a training program designed to boost cognition in older adults also increased their openness to new experiences, demonstrating for the first time that a non-drug intervention in older adults can change a personality trait once thought to be fixed throughout a person's lifespan.

A study from Michigan State found that childhood participation in arts and crafts leads to innovation , patents, and increases the odds of starting a business as an adult. The researchers found that people who own businesses or patents received up to eight times more exposure to the arts as children than the general public.

And that was something we were surprised to discover. Last year, neuroscientists discovered multiple ways that musical training improves the function and connectivity of different brain regions and improves cognitive function. Practicing a musical instrument increases brain volume and strengthens communication between brain areas.

Playing an instrument changes how the brain interprets and integrates a wide range of sensory information, especially for those who start before age seven. The findings were presented at the Neuroscience conference in San Diego. In a press briefing, Gottfried Schlaug of Harvard Medical School summarized the new research from three different presentations at the conference.

He said, "These insights suggest potential new roles for musical training including fostering plasticity in the brain; have strong implications for using musical training as a tool in education ; and for treating a range of learning disabilities.

Another study found that reading books, writing, and participating in brain-stimulating activities at any age may preserve memory.

Neuroscientists discovered that reading a novel can improve brain function on a variety of levels. This study of the brain benefits of reading fiction was conducted at Emory University and published in the journal Brain Connectivity. The researchers found that becoming engrossed in a novel enhances connectivity in the brain and improves brain function.

In , John Cacioppo of the University of Chicago presented findings that identified that the health consequences of feeling lonely can trigger psychological and cognitive decline. Cacioppo's research found that feeling isolated from others can disrupt sleep, elevate blood pressure, increase morning rises in the stress hormone cortisol, alter gene expression in immune cells, increase depression , and lower overall subjective well-being.

All of these factors conspire to disrupt optimal brain function and connectivity, and reduce cognitive function. A pilot study by researchers at Harvard's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center identifed that the brain changes associated with meditation and subsequent stress reduction may play an important role in slowing the progression of age-related cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

First author Rebecca Erwin Wells explained, "We were particularly interested in looking at the default mode network DMN —the brain system that is engaged when people remember past events or envision the future, for example—and the hippocampus—the part of the brain responsible for emotions, learning and memory—because the hippocampus is known to atrophy as people progress toward mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

We also know that as people age, there's a high correlation between perceived stress and Alzheimer's disease, so we wanted to know if stress reduction through meditation might improve cognitive reserve. Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco UCSF have created a specialized video game that may help older people boost mental skills like handling multiple tasks at once.

Adam Gazzaley of UCSF and colleagues published their findings in Nature in If someone received additional "booster" sessions over the next three years, the improvements were even more dramatic. Scientists have known for decades that the brain requires sleep to consolidate learning and memory.

At the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego in , sleep researchers from Brown University presented groundbreaking new research that helps explain the specifics of how the sleeping brain masters a new task.

The extent of reorganization that the brain accomplishes during sleep is suggested by the distinct roles the two brainwave oscillations appear to play. A study from University of California, San Francisco UCSF found an association between poor sleep quality and reduced gray matter volume in the brain's frontal lobe, which helps control important processes such as working memory and executive function.

Neuroscientists have discovered that chronic stress and high levels of cortisol can damage the brain. A wide range of recent studies has affirmed the importance of maintaining healthy brain structure and connectivity by reducing chronic stress, which lowers cortisol.

Neuroscientists at the University of California, Berkeley, found that chronic stress triggers long-term changes in brain structure and function which can lead to cognitive decline.

In general, a healthy diet consists of fruits and vegetables; whole grains; lean meats, fish, and poultry; and low-fat or nonfat dairy products.

You should also limit solid fats, sugar, and salt. Be sure to control portion sizes and drink enough water and other fluids. Researchers are looking at whether a healthy diet can help preserve cognitive function or reduce the risk of Alzheimer's.

For example, there is some evidence that people who eat a Mediterranean diet have a lower risk of developing dementia. In contrast, the typical Western diet often increases cardiovascular disease risk, possibly contributing to faster brain aging. Researchers have developed and are testing another diet, called MIND , a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets.

Being physically active — through regular exercise, household chores, or other activities — has many benefits. It can help you:. In one study, exercise stimulated the human brain's ability to maintain old network connections and make new ones that are vital to cognitive health.

Other studies have shown that exercise increases the size of a brain structure important to memory and learning, resulting in better spatial memory. Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is thought to be more beneficial to cognitive health than nonaerobic stretching and toning exercise.

Federal guidelines recommend that all adults get at least minutes 2. Walking is a good start. You can also join programs that teach you to move safely and prevent falls, which can lead to brain and other injuries.

Check with your health care provider if you haven't been active and want to start a vigorous exercise program.

Being intellectually engaged may benefit the brain. People who engage in personally meaningful activities , such as volunteering or hobbies, say they feel happier and healthier. Learning new skills may improve your thinking ability, too.

For example, one study found that older adults who learned quilting or digital photography had more memory improvement than those who only socialized or did less cognitively demanding activities.

Some of the research on engagement in activities such as music, theater, dance, and creative writing has shown promise for improving quality of life and well-being in older adults, from better memory and self-esteem to reduced stress and increased social interaction. However, a recent, comprehensive report reviewing the design and findings of these and other studies did not find strong evidence that these types of activities have a lasting, beneficial effect on cognition.

Additional research is needed, and in large numbers of diverse older adults, to be able to say definitively whether these activities may help reduce decline or maintain healthy cognition. Lots of activities can keep your mind active.

For example, read books and magazines. Play games. Take or teach a class. Learn a new skill or hobby. Work or volunteer. These types of mentally stimulating activities have not been proven to prevent serious cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease , but they can be fun!

Some scientists have argued that such activities may protect the brain by establishing "cognitive reserve. Some types of cognitive training conducted in a research setting also seem to have benefits. For the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly ACTIVE trial , healthy adults 65 and older participated in 10 sessions of memory training, reasoning training, or processing-speed training.

The sessions improved participants' mental skills in the area in which they were trained with evidence suggesting these benefits persisted for two years. Be wary of claims that playing certain computer and online games can improve your memory and other types of thinking as evidence to back up such claims is evolving.

There is currently not enough evidence available to suggest that computer-based brain training applications offered commercially have the same impact on cognitive abilities as the ACTIVE study training.

NIA and other organizations are supporting research to determine whether different types of cognitive training have lasting effects. For more information, see Participating in Activities You Enjoy.

Connecting with other people through social activities and community programs can keep your brain active and help you feel less isolated and more engaged with the world around you.

Participating in social activities may lower the risk for some health problems and improve well-being.

Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness

Enhanced Brain Function and Awareness -

Federal government websites often end in. gov or. The site is secure. Cognitive health — the ability to clearly think, learn, and remember — is an important component of performing everyday activities. Cognitive health is just one aspect of overall brain health.

A growing body of scientific research suggests that the following steps are linked to cognitive health. Small changes may really add up: Making these part of your routine could help you function better. Preventing or controlling high blood pressure , not only helps your heart, but may help your brain too.

Decades of observational studies have shown that having high blood pressure in midlife — the 40s to early 60s — increases the risk of cognitive decline later in life. In addition, the SPRINT-MIND study, a nationwide clinical trial, showed that intensive lowering of blood pressure even below the previous standard target of for systolic blood pressure lowers the risk for mild cognitive impairment, which is a risk factor for dementia.

High blood pressure often does not cause signs of illness that you can see or feel. Routine visits to your doctor will help pick up changes in your blood pressure, even though you might feel fine. To control or lower high blood pressure, your doctor may suggest exercise, changes in your diet, and if needed — medications.

These steps can help protect your brain and your heart. A healthy diet can help reduce the risk of many chronic diseases such as heart disease or diabetes.

It may also help keep your brain healthy. In general, a healthy diet consists of fruits and vegetables; whole grains; lean meats, fish, and poultry; and low-fat or nonfat dairy products.

You should also limit solid fats, sugar, and salt. Be sure to control portion sizes and drink enough water and other fluids. Researchers are looking at whether a healthy diet can help preserve cognitive function or reduce the risk of Alzheimer's. For example, there is some evidence that people who eat a Mediterranean diet have a lower risk of developing dementia.

In contrast, the typical Western diet often increases cardiovascular disease risk, possibly contributing to faster brain aging.

Researchers have developed and are testing another diet, called MIND , a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets. Being physically active — through regular exercise, household chores, or other activities — has many benefits.

It can help you:. In one study, exercise stimulated the human brain's ability to maintain old network connections and make new ones that are vital to cognitive health. Other studies have shown that exercise increases the size of a brain structure important to memory and learning, resulting in better spatial memory.

Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is thought to be more beneficial to cognitive health than nonaerobic stretching and toning exercise. Federal guidelines recommend that all adults get at least minutes 2. Walking is a good start. You can also join programs that teach you to move safely and prevent falls, which can lead to brain and other injuries.

Check with your health care provider if you haven't been active and want to start a vigorous exercise program.

Being intellectually engaged may benefit the brain. People who engage in personally meaningful activities , such as volunteering or hobbies, say they feel happier and healthier.

Learning new skills may improve your thinking ability, too. For example, one study found that older adults who learned quilting or digital photography had more memory improvement than those who only socialized or did less cognitively demanding activities.

Some of the research on engagement in activities such as music, theater, dance, and creative writing has shown promise for improving quality of life and well-being in older adults, from better memory and self-esteem to reduced stress and increased social interaction.

However, a recent, comprehensive report reviewing the design and findings of these and other studies did not find strong evidence that these types of activities have a lasting, beneficial effect on cognition.

Additional research is needed, and in large numbers of diverse older adults, to be able to say definitively whether these activities may help reduce decline or maintain healthy cognition.

Lots of activities can keep your mind active. Older adults have long been encouraged to stay active and to flex their memory and learning like any muscle that you have to "use or lose. When you are inside your comfort zone you may be outside of the enhancement zone. Another study, from , found that a training program designed to boost cognition in older adults also increased their openness to new experiences, demonstrating for the first time that a non-drug intervention in older adults can change a personality trait once thought to be fixed throughout a person's lifespan.

A study from Michigan State found that childhood participation in arts and crafts leads to innovation , patents, and increases the odds of starting a business as an adult. The researchers found that people who own businesses or patents received up to eight times more exposure to the arts as children than the general public.

And that was something we were surprised to discover. Last year, neuroscientists discovered multiple ways that musical training improves the function and connectivity of different brain regions and improves cognitive function.

Practicing a musical instrument increases brain volume and strengthens communication between brain areas. Playing an instrument changes how the brain interprets and integrates a wide range of sensory information, especially for those who start before age seven. The findings were presented at the Neuroscience conference in San Diego.

In a press briefing, Gottfried Schlaug of Harvard Medical School summarized the new research from three different presentations at the conference.

He said, "These insights suggest potential new roles for musical training including fostering plasticity in the brain; have strong implications for using musical training as a tool in education ; and for treating a range of learning disabilities.

Another study found that reading books, writing, and participating in brain-stimulating activities at any age may preserve memory. Neuroscientists discovered that reading a novel can improve brain function on a variety of levels.

This study of the brain benefits of reading fiction was conducted at Emory University and published in the journal Brain Connectivity. The researchers found that becoming engrossed in a novel enhances connectivity in the brain and improves brain function.

In , John Cacioppo of the University of Chicago presented findings that identified that the health consequences of feeling lonely can trigger psychological and cognitive decline. Cacioppo's research found that feeling isolated from others can disrupt sleep, elevate blood pressure, increase morning rises in the stress hormone cortisol, alter gene expression in immune cells, increase depression , and lower overall subjective well-being.

All of these factors conspire to disrupt optimal brain function and connectivity, and reduce cognitive function. A pilot study by researchers at Harvard's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center identifed that the brain changes associated with meditation and subsequent stress reduction may play an important role in slowing the progression of age-related cognitive disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

First author Rebecca Erwin Wells explained, "We were particularly interested in looking at the default mode network DMN —the brain system that is engaged when people remember past events or envision the future, for example—and the hippocampus—the part of the brain responsible for emotions, learning and memory—because the hippocampus is known to atrophy as people progress toward mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

We also know that as people age, there's a high correlation between perceived stress and Alzheimer's disease, so we wanted to know if stress reduction through meditation might improve cognitive reserve.

Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco UCSF have created a specialized video game that may help older people boost mental skills like handling multiple tasks at once. Adam Gazzaley of UCSF and colleagues published their findings in Nature in If someone received additional "booster" sessions over the next three years, the improvements were even more dramatic.

Scientists have known for decades that the brain requires sleep to consolidate learning and memory. At the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego in , sleep researchers from Brown University presented groundbreaking new research that helps explain the specifics of how the sleeping brain masters a new task.

The extent of reorganization that the brain accomplishes during sleep is suggested by the distinct roles the two brainwave oscillations appear to play.

A study from University of California, San Francisco UCSF found an association between poor sleep quality and reduced gray matter volume in the brain's frontal lobe, which helps control important processes such as working memory and executive function.

Neuroscientists have discovered that chronic stress and high levels of cortisol can damage the brain. A wide range of recent studies has affirmed the importance of maintaining healthy brain structure and connectivity by reducing chronic stress, which lowers cortisol.

Neuroscientists at the University of California, Berkeley, found that chronic stress triggers long-term changes in brain structure and function which can lead to cognitive decline.

Their findings might explain why young people exposed to chronic stress early in life are prone to mental problems such as anxiety and mood disorders later in life, as well as learning difficulties.

Non-invasive brain stimulation approaches can affect neuronal plasticity. These approaches seem beneficial for repairing post-stroke problematic network topologies Grefkes and Fink, In , Kirton et al.

Children received 8 days of 1 Hz rTMS of the contralesional motor cortex, which reduced inter hemispheric inhibition and promoted contralateral cortical excitability Pal et al.

rTMS boosted grip strength and was also well tolerated with no notable adverse effects Pascual-Leone et al. In another randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, parallel clinical trial, five rTMS treatments were applied for 5 days on 17 children with infantile cerebral palsy and spastic quadriplegia.

It was found that rTMS treatment caused substantial reduction in spasticity while using 5 Hz rTMS at the primary motor cortex Valle et al. Another study also reported a significant reduction in spasticity after application of 5 Hz rTMS on the primary motor cortex that induced an overall increase in excitability of the corticospinal output system, including spinal motor neurons.

Both of the trials highlighted the potential of rTMS in rehabilitating motor symptoms after childhood vascular damage Quartarone et al. tDCS treatment along with suitable antidepressants is found to be more efficient in treating vascular depression, resistant to antidepressants alone.

Because of its non-invasive nature, lack of significant side effects, and ability to be administered to outpatients at a reasonable cost, tDCS is a valuable tool in therapeutic practice Zanardi et al. Further studies have demonstrated a possible therapeutic role of tDCS in the treatment of cognitive impairment in Vascular dementia Guo et al.

Current evidences of neurotechnologies in the treatment of vascular disease is promising. However, due to less number of researches, tDCS has yet to be studied for the treatment of vascular diseases in children or adolescents.

The pathophysiological feature in epilepsy is increased cortical excitability, leading to paroxysmal depolarization changes and increased frequency and synchrony of neural networks.

Antiepileptic drugs by reducing neuronal excitability help to eliminate the symptoms of epilepsy Stafstrom, Nowadays, scientists worldwide are working on use of brain augmentation approaches to treat epilepsies. In , Fregni et al. The TMS coil was positioned over the epileptogenic region, or in the absence of a clearly defined epileptogenic zone, over the reference point for a period of 15—30 days.

The rTMS treatment dramatically reduced frequency of epileptiform discharges ED in the patients Fregni et al. In a clinical study conducted on 36 children age 6—15 years with focal epilepsy, it was found that active tDCS treatment significantly reduced epileptic discharge frequency at 0.

The frequency of seizures decreased slightly 4 weeks following tDCS treatment and the treatment was well tolerated Auvichayapat et al. Researchers have suggested that tDCS can modulate the activity of epileptogenic networks. Indeed, one previous study reported that five consecutive sessions of cathodal tDCS over the primary motor cortex reduced seizure frequency and interictal epileptic discharges IED in patients with Lennox—Gastaut syndrome LGS; Yang et al.

Application of tDCS for 14 consecutive days significantly decreased seizure frequencies in patients with refractory focal epilepsy, with 2 × min daily stimulation protocol being more effective than min daily stimulation protocol Yang et al.

Use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to excite or inhibit neurons, with repetitive pulses at low-frequency producing inhibitory effects can be used to reduce cortical excitability in epilepsy Chen et al.

Above findings suggest that rTMS and tDCS are effective in treating epilepsy in children. However, the results are varied, presumably due to different stimulation parameters, limited sample sizes, and different etiologies of participants Vicario and Nitsche, Since neurotechnologies are advancing at a consistent rate, they will be utilized as an intervention technique for the treatment of epilepsy, as current results are encouraging.

ADHD is a common and debilitating illness characterized by lack of attention, hyperactivity, and executive dysfunction. Functional neuroimaging investigations have revealed hypoactivation in the cingulate, frontal, and parietal cortices in the patients of ADHD.

Thus, excitation of these brain areas with non-invasive brain stimulation can be useful for ADHD Bush, In a randomized sham controlled crossover study conducted on nine ADHD patients, 10 Hz rTMS for 2 weeks was applied on the right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex DLPFC.

Both active and sham rTMS improved clinical global impression CGI and ADHD-IV scores with no significant side effects. As both groups in this study those randomized to active TMS and those randomized to sham TMS received active TMS at some point, author assessed there was an overall improvement in CGI-I in both groups across the study CGI-I across.

From baseline to the CGI-I across the study endpoint, there was a highly significant change in the primary outcome, the CGI-I across. Overall, the study participants improved by a mean of 1. According to author, this study was the first to explore TMS as a treatment procedure for ADHD youths.

TMS was safe with no major adverse effects on research population. There was improvement in the symptoms of the patient from the start to the finish of the trial but there was no difference between treatment conditions. Since this was an exploratory study, the results were promising Weaver et al.

tDCS of DLPFC has been shown to modulate cognitive circuits and could enhance DLPFC activity, leading to improved impulse control in ADHD Allenby et al. Researchers have shown that tDCS can reduce the symptoms of ADHD in adolescents and enhance their cognitive performance Soff et al.

However effect of tDCS on ADHD in children is still a subject of research Allenby et al. rTMS is also known to promote the secretion of dopamine by stimulating the prefrontal lobe of the brain, thereby improving the symptoms of ADHD Bloch et al.

rTMS is an efficacious intervention for treating ADHD, and combined rTMS and atomoxetine is superior to atomoxetine alone in improving attention deficit symptoms and total ADHD symptoms severity Nagy et al.

However the rTMS treatment of ADHD is still in its infancy and we need to focus on best treatment regimen, duration of acute treatment, neurostimulation target, and symptoms modulated by rTMS in ADHD Kumar et al.

As current study results are encouraging, these neurotechnologies needs to be investigated in future for the treatment of ADHD. The striatum, sub-cortical areas and Supplemental Motor Area SMA are impaired in childhood TS Swain et al.

Patients with TS have a hyperexcitable premotor cortex George et al. Because SMA is mainly related to regions involved in TS, excitability-reducing rTMS to the SMA may be an effective treatment for TS Picard and Strick, In a 12 week cohort pilot study, 1 Hz rTMS was applied across the SMA of patients each day and mood, anxiety level, tics, and side effect were monitored.

It was observed that the treatment statistically decreased Yale Global TS Severity Scale Kwon et al. In another study, application of 1 Hz rTMS on the SMA in 25 TS children for 20 days resulted in considerable improvement in symptoms of TS.

However, no tDCS researches for TS have been done so far. Preliminary evidence suggests that tDCS may be useful in the treatment of Tourette syndrome. Larger scale studies are required to ascertain the improvement of symptoms over time, as well as the long-term consequences of the repetitions of sessions Eapen et al.

Based on current findings, the authors are optimistic about the success of neurotechnologies in the treatment of TS in future. ASD affects around 1 in children worldwide and causes significant social and communication deficits.

Non-invasive brain stimulation has been found to improve the symptoms and cognition in the patient of ASD Fombonne, Increased gamma-band responses to several cognitive processes in children with ASD have been described McFadden et al.

In a controlled investigation conducted on 25 patients of ASD ages 9—26 and 20 age-matched controls, the electrophysiological effects of 12 low frequency rTMS sessions weekly application applied bilaterally to the DLPFC first six treatments over the left DLPFC and the rest over the right was studied.

After the exposure period, discriminatory gamma activity and behavioral characteristics improved significantly in the treatment group Baruth et al. In an another study conducted on 20 ASD patients ages 10—19 using oddball paradigm García-Larrea et al.

Similarly in a study, tDCS was applied in autistic youngsters 10 from age group of 16—21 who had limited verbal communication. It was found that post-anodal tDCS of the Broca region increased mean vocabulary scores compared to pre-anodal tDCS Schneider and Hopp, Therefore research indicates that non-invasive brain stimulation may be beneficial to autistic youngsters.

However, detail studies are still lacking on the subject Vicario and Nitsche, Childhood depression is associated with considerable functional impairment in various domains and areas of brain Cosgrove et al. In addition to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the subgenual cingulate gyrus is also affected in depression Mayberg, It has been demonstrated that in depression, hypoactivation of left hemisphere and hyperactivation of right hemispherical areas takes place resulting in a hemispheric imbalance.

With the help of brain stimulation technique we can increase the activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Fitzgerald et al. In , Walter et al. studied the effect of rTMS on depression in three patients below the age of The patients underwent daily treatment with 10 Hz rTMS over the left DLPFC for 2 weeks.

Clinically, two subjects benefited, while one experienced tension headaches throughout the period of treatment sessions Walter et al.

In an another study, application of 10 Hz rTMS on the left DLPFC in depressed and ADHD children for 6 weeks improved symptoms of depression but no improvement was observed in the symptoms of ADHD Loo et al. Neurocognitive testing also revealed no deterioration of functions pre- or post-treatment Wall et al.

Although rTMS is a recognized treatment for Major Depressive Disorder MDD , the therapeutic area is constantly advancing to improve response and remission rates. Novel stimulation parameters and fine-tuning personalized therapy methods are being studied.

Despite this, significant unsolved concerns remain, such as the stability of medium to long-term antidepressant benefits of this technology, appropriate sequencing between rTMS sessions, conjunction with other antidepressant treatments, or the hypothesized role of rTMS as a cognitive enhancer Baeken et al.

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a severe type of the condition that shares many similarities with adult-onset schizophrenia, hallucinations being the most distressing clinical symptom Nicolson and Rapoport, ; David et al. The right medial temporal, lateral temporal, inferior frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, left DLPFC, and left superior temporal gyrus all shows physiological abnormalities in schizophrenia Vyas and Gogtay, Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are connected with increased left temporoparietal cortical excitability Silbersweig et al.

However, increased activity in the left prefrontal region may help alleviate negative symptoms by increasing dopamine release Heimer et al. Excitability-reducing stimulation may diminish left temporoparietal cortex activity, whereas excitatory non-invasive brain stimulation may enhance left prefrontal cortex activity Freitas et al.

Recently the effect of tDCS was studied on 12 children with schizophrenia in a randomized controlled trial.

As such no discomfort was experienced by the subjects and only four subjects suffered temporary redness under the electrodes that vanishes after hour of treatment.

Although no significant clinical improvement has been reported; this study was the first to show that tDCS with the applied settings is well tolerated in adolescents Mattai et al. However, the benefits of non-invasive brain stimulation in childhood onset schizophrenia are largely unknown.

The authors hope that substantial amounts of research need to be conducted before these neurotechnologies emerge as a treatment for schizophrenia.

Brain prostheses are intended to be artificial systems directly connected to the brain in order to replace a damaged area or connect disconnected regions and restore lost functionality. For instance, the device may be used to reconnect somatosensory and motor cortical areas to restore forelimb movement following a brain injury.

In , Kansas University Medical Center presented for the first time a brain prosthesis with an architecture implementing a closed-loop reactive policy Guggenmos et al.

An additional promising example is the hippocampal memory prosthesis, in which the neural activity of specific hippocampus regions that have been suitably processed can be used to manipulate and thus restore via ad hoc electrical stimulation cognitive mnemonic processes.

Brain prostheses are still in the preclinical stage of development Panuccio et al. The work of Courtine and colleagues, which successfully demonstrated that spatiotemporal spinal cord modulations can restore locomotion in spinal cord-injured rodents, lies at the boundary between BMIs and brain prostheses.

Notably, all of the above mentioned neuroprosthetic devices take advantage of recent software and hardware advancements in terms of the amount of data processing Wenger et al. For instance, optogenetics and sonogenetics enable precise spatiotemporal control of cells and the manipulation of specific brain circuits via light and sound, respectively.

Therefore, these techniques can be utilized in future neuroprosthetic devices, which has significant implications for the treatment of neurological disorders Panuccio et al.

Recording based non-invasive BCI systems often detect certain patterns of brain activity and transform them into device commands or communication acts Cinel et al. Among EEG-based BCIs, Event-Related Potentials ERPs , or series of oscillations in the electrical signals that are recorded from the scalp in response to abrupt sensory, cognitive, or motor events is a major focus of the study Luck, Slow Cortical Potentials SCPs , Mu wave-Related Desynchronization, mental imagery, and Steady-State Visually Evoked Potentials SSVEPs are few brain augmentation techniques that are more frequently used in communication.

SCPs, Event-related desynchronization ERDs , and BCIs based on mental imagery are fundamentally biofeedback-based and are not dependent on external stimuli in the way that ERP- and SSVEP-based BCIs are Elbert et al.

Because electrode implantation poses medical and ethical issues, most invasive BCI research has been done on monkeys or rats, with human studies being rare Chapin et al. Paralyzed people can also utilize BCIs with implanted electrodes to speak instead of write.

BCI predicts intended speech directly from neural activity. This data is used to control a voice synthesizer. With advancement in science, researchers have been investigating the idea of direct brain-to-brain communication, i. Pais-Vieira et al. This section focuses on applications of brain augmentation for individual and group decision making, as well as cognitive enhancement based on brain stimulation.

How people make decisions individually and collectively is a subject of research since ancient times. Several processes and mechanisms influence decision-making, including early perceptual processes, attention, and working memory processing Cinel et al.

Recent brain research has focused on how people make decisions, their methods, and their willingness to take risks Rushworth and Behrens, ; Tobler et al.

With so much neuroscientific knowledge about information and decision processing, it seems reasonable to try to improve decision-making. However, the most viable non-invasive sources of information on brain activity like tES and TMS are exceedingly noisy, making it extremely difficult to provide information about or assist with individual decisions with any degree of confidence Cinel et al.

Techniques like tES and TMS can increase perception, learning, memory, attention, and decision-making Coffman et al. Several researchers have showed proven ways to improve target detection e. Anodal stimulation enhanced performance slightly. tES also performed well in a more realistic and complex threat detection scenario where participants were shown a short video clip from a virtual reality setting and asked to determine whether a threat was there.

tES dramatically enhanced performance in both studies Clark et al. In one tDCS trial, participants were shown a display of simple, colored shapes and asked to decide whether or not a target was present Nelson et al. tDCS has also been used successfully to treat reading difficulties such as dyslexia in both adults and children Heth and Lavidor, However, the benefit of tDCS on reading appears to be limited to certain activities, such as sight word efficiency Younger et al.

Hence, brain stimulation may be utilized to optimize cortical oscillations, resulting in indirect improvements in a variety of tasks e. Numerous studies have shown that non-invasive brain stimulation using TMS and tES improves memory and learning Brunoni and Vanderhasselt, The N-Back and Sternberg tasks, for example, have shown that tDCS can help both healthy and memory-impaired people to acquire sequential motor sequences and complicated motor patterns Cinel et al.

Invasive neurotechnologies have also showed promise in memory enhancement. Recent achievements include neuroprosthetics that improve memory encoding and retention. Numerous studies and technologies are focused at real-time monitoring of cognitive function and capacity, such as working memory capacity or attention.

Even when such systems were not explicitly designed to improve performance, monitoring the mental state of users enables performance to be improved by altering the interface with which they interact, referred to as adaptive interfaces.

In , Wilson and Russell proposed a neuroadaptive system in which users were given a task to detect a target in their environment and whose mental effort was varied in response to input provided by EEG and other physiological indicators Durantin et al. In general, as alertness decreases, low-frequency EEG oscillations and ERP amplitudes increase.

Changes in EEG patterns increased theta and decreased beta activity associated with the awake-sleep transition might potentially suggest attention deficits.

Additionally, it is known that the amplitude of the P ERP is connected to mental strain and the level of attention for a particular task. This has also been demonstrated in complex aviation and driving simulation scenarios, where the P can provide a workload assessment Cinel et al.

The use of BCIs as a form of biofeedback to improve visual attention has been investigated Strehl et al. Although it has only been tested on ADHD individuals, neurofeedback has also been demonstrated to help tinnitus patients focus on the auditory perceptual modality thereby giving them the ability to suppress or reduce the effects of tinnitus; Busse et al.

Situational awareness is the ability to perceive, know, and grasp the current state of complicated, dynamic situations and being aware of what is going to be important to the task or goal at hand.

Situation awareness can be studied in military command and control, combat aircraft, air traffic control, emergency services, and other domains where information flow is high and errors might be catastrophic Endsley, Recent research shows that neurophysiological approaches can be used to examine cognitive processes linked with situation awareness in military simulations Berka et al.

Perception of environmental factors or stimuli can be measured using channel EEG while identifying targets and threats in urban situations.

In both cases, the target was abruptly changed, causing confusion. In the — ms following the loss of situation awareness, there is co-activity in ocular, prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal regions linked to cognition Catherwood et al.

Portable EEG equipment can also monitor situation awareness in air traffic controllers in real-time Yeo et al. Hyperscanning is a technology that records the brain activity of two or more people working together on a common goal Babiloni and Astolfi, Currently, hyperscanning is employed to find the correlation of brain activity between people.

Studies utilizing hyperscanning have found some of the neural correlates of interaction in two brains, and recorded how they alter as the players come to know each other and their engagement during the game evolves. The technology is not yet employed for communication, cognitive enhancement, or social engagement.

However, in the near future, this technology may improve such tasks Cinel et al. Brain-based training has recently gained popularity in the security and defence industries.

They may improve training by allowing it to be tailored to the needs of individual users rather than employing a one-size-fits-all approach Stanney et al. Technology can improve training by monitoring brain activity Miranda et al.

tES can be utilized to increase visual search and exploration task learning Bolognini et al. In a study it was found that tES enhances target acquisition accuracy and speeds up acquiring threat detection skills McKinley et al.

Neuroscience technology can also help with problem-solving. It was found that tDCS could boost performance in the Remote Associates Test, a verbal problem-solving activity requiring participants to accurately estimate three cue words linked by a fourth word Cerruti and Schlaug, tDCS based problem-solving augmentation also increased speed and accuracy of a given task Dockery et al.

Augmentation technologies are designed to enhance human skills and continuous development of neuroenhancement technologies may lead to increasingly more helpful forms of brain augmentation. However its eventual utility is debated, most evidence suggests that future research will lead to at least a few beneficial applications, if not many.

Many people believe that some forms of neuroenhancement are too uncommon, immoral or unethical and should be outlawed or carefully regulated Walsh, ; Clark, ; Shook et al.

Brain augmentation technologies have various limitations or drawbacks. Cognitive augmentations may benefit primarily the wealthy due to high pricing, hence deepening the social and cultural divide generated by income disparities Hyman, Improving one cognitive domain may result in a decline in another.

This argument assumes that emphasizing one sort of cognition must necessarily diminish others Luber and Lisanby, The enhancement issue in neuroscience and biomedical ethics tends to focus on memory, learning, and attention augmentation.

Earp et al. Uncertainty about safety is also a concern. No brain stimulation technology is without side effects. The risks and benefits of surgical techniques like DBS are carefully weighed against the potential risks and benefits to the patient.

There are actual hazards of seizures from TMS and tCS, and scalp burns from tCS, even though the safety limits for brain stimulation are well defined Davis and van Koningsbruggen, Expanding access to stimulation of the brain.

Ethical and policy consequences of augmenting technology are also an issue Davis and van Koningsbruggen, In addition, persons who are dissatisfied with current drug treatment seek supplementary treatment with brain stimulation, without clear instructions concerning necessary controls or combinations with existing treatments Davis et al.

Current research suggests that among all neuroscience techniques tDCS can mainly improve cognitive and behavioral performance.

These enhancement claims are likely to be the driving force behind the recent rise in public interest in this technology. The three variables that can be adjusted to improve tDCS efficacy are current density, electrode position, and stimulation time. While these three variables clearly influence tDCS outcomes, there are a number of equally critical problems related to efficacy and mechanism that are just not being addressed Horvath et al.

While Human Performance Enhancement Technology HPET has demonstrated some benefits in some areas, its deployment may result in health and safety concerns, and even death, among augmented individuals Shao et al.

Before it may be used in healthy or clinical populations, tDCS must show equivalent results across a wide variety of persons. In fact, extensive between- and within-group heterogeneity suggests an uneven influence amongst individuals Horvath et al.

Even two groups receiving same stimulation procedure 0. Modern MRI guided neuronavigation systems can ensure correct coil location over time, although many tDCS studies do not use them.

As a result, slight changes in coil placement and orientation over time may affect response variation Herwig et al. Neurophysiology, anatomy, and psychology may influence tDCS response. Recent research reveals that characteristics including skull thickness, subcutaneous fat levels, cerebrospinal fluid density, and cortical surface topography can considerably influence current flow and density patterns during stimulation Datta et al.

Before this technology can be used effectively, it must be proven that people respond consistently to repeated tDCS sessions as individual response reliability of tDCS has not been examined yet Horvath et al. Circadian, metabolic, and hormonal cycles may influence responsiveness. In fact, multiple studies have indicated that menstrual cycle stage and cortisol levels influence plastic responsiveness to TMS treatments Smith et al.

When combined with motor training, the tDCS benefit may be lost. Neurologists often instruct participants to relax during long-duration off-line stimulatory techniques. Relaxation can be achieved through reading, messaging, perusing the internet, or completing chores. It is critical to determine the effects of tDCS in normal human behavior before wasting time and money on ineffective protocols.

Until this is rectified, practitioners should limit motor and cognitive activity during and soon after tDCS, as well as any subsequent procedure TMS, MRI, etc. Variables that may greatly influence current density and flow can also affect the effectiveness of augmentation techniques Paulus, Hair thickness as well as condition can influence current density and flow.

Less resistance equals more conductivity. To combat this, practitioners frequently saturate dense hair with saline.

Unfortunately, saline or drip- ping on the scalp might cause unwanted and unpredictable current flow. The tDCS current can be bridged even when there is no direct electrode-to-scalp contact such as in participants with thick hair.

The exact location of the electric current entry and departure locations on the scalp will thereafter be unknown and unpredictable. Also, when an electric current travels via saltwater to the scalp, the current density is unknown and unexpected Horvath et al.

Sweat can influence electric current dynamics and increases skin conductivity, hence affect current flow. The epidermis may generate enough conductivity as salts and oils collected in scalp pores can prevent current from entering the cortex Dawson et al.

Finally, the way electrodes are attached to the scalp may affect current dynamics and flow. For example, many modern tDCS sponge electrodes have plastic rings around the corners.

Unless carefully designed, most polymers are non-conductive. Although it is unknown whether or not the plastic that was used to make these electrodes was produced to conduct electricity Horvath et al. Recent advances in optogenetic stimulation technologies pose ethical problems, not only about the appropriateness of brain interventions and their repercussions, but also about the necessary genetic alterations of the organism.

To make mild stimulations conceivable, modified viruses must be used to remodel cells. This requires more than just weighing risks and rewards. The question is whether the benefits of optical stimulation over electrical stimulation which causes irreversible damage to neural tissue can be offset by the risks of genetic alteration Müller and Rotter, Natural forces balance human physiological, pathological, and psychological changes, leaving the organism in an overall healthy state Brown and Tvaryanas, ; Lin and Allhoff, It is natural to fear changes and the unknown.

Thus, the ethical discussion often appears to center on what is imaginable, rather than what is scientifically foreseeable and what is now actuality. This can lead to unforeseen outcomes Cinel et al. Along with the more classic ethical difficulties relating to human engagement in research, advances in neuroscience and neuroscience technologies have produced new and unique ethical issues neuroethics; Chan and Harris, ; McCullagh et al.

Ethical concerns regarding brain-augmentation methods include the relationship between diminishment and enhancement following the application of brain-augmentation technologies. The obligation to use cognitive enhancers in high-risk professions, determining the population who are in need of brain enhancement, informed public policy, cognitive biases, and the hype generated by the development of brain-augmentation technologies are other concerns Lebedev et al.

It is difficult to anticipate the future of neuroscience, neuroergonomics, BCIs, and human enhancement technologies, and also impossible to foresee how society will view them. Tracking ethical implications is vital, especially in domains like mind reading, privacy, agency, accountability, and liability.

Since BCIs, neuroergonomics, neural engineering etc. are gaining prominence in the field of neuroscience, such applications warrant ethical consideration Cinel et al. Mind reading is a concern in conditions where mental activity is tracked, such as in neuroergonomics, passive BCIs, or hyperscanning Trimper et al.

Various researchers have further raised the problem of accountability with BCI and other brain augmentation techniques. Understanding agency, accountability, and responsibility will become increasingly difficult as the amount and complexity of possible messages conveyed to decoder increases McCullagh et al.

Various people worldwide question on safety and invasiveness of brain augmentation techniques and assume that they can alter brain activity. One must be sure and ask whether intrusive procedures such as DBS are safe or safer than other ways currently in use when considering neurostimulation technologies from an ethical perspective Clark, tES and TMS frequently utilized for cognitive enhancement are associated with issue of invasiveness though they are non-invasive kinds of stimulation Davis and van Koningsbruggen, Another problem is the costs vs.

advantages of neuroscience technologies for society. Aside from potential hazards, it is often uncertain if these technologies are beneficial to society. Increasing reliance on neuroscience technologies may have unintended negative societal consequences Cinel et al. While expectations are crucial in advancing science and technology, but they are not always accurate forecasters of the future Brown and Michael, Even though a wide multidisciplinary community of scientists shares high expectations for future breakthroughs, this does not guarantee scientific success of brain augmentation techniques Pollock and Williams, When expectations are not met, enthusiasm for planned scientific development wanes which possibly is followed by a gradual resurgence.

Unrealistic expectations might have a negative effect that is why neuroscientists should avoid overhyping the potential for brain augmentation Rusconi and Mitchener-Nissen, The authors are of the opinion that as it is difficult to predict the precise future trajectory of neuroscience, BCIs, and brain augmentation technologies, it is similarly difficult to predict neuroethics, i.

It is crucial to monitor ethical implications, especially in areas such as mind-reading and privacy, agency, responsibility, and liability.

Given the recent trajectory of neuroscience, BCIs, brain-to-brain communication, and neural engineering, as well as their tremendous growth, such applications have potential to become a reality 1 day; therefore, they deserve ethical discussion.

Neurotechnologies are combination of neuroscience and engineering that enable the research, repair, and enhancement of brain function. Non-invasive brain imaging techniques such as EEG and fNIRS have become increasingly accessible and affordable over the last few decades, paving the way for novel applications of neurotechnologies Ayaz and Dehais, Neuroergonomics and neural engineering have recently emphasized the use of non-invasive neurotechnologies to increase a variety of human capacities, including communication, emotion, perception, memory, problem-solving, and decision-making Kosmyna and Maes, Figure 3 depicts current applications and development status of various brain augmentation techniques.

Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques like TMS and tES are employed in the investigation, prognosis, and treatment of a wide variety of illnesses Bikson et al. Direct brain manipulation on a targeted basis may also be accomplished via visual sensory substitution and somatosensory senses Adaikkan and Tsai, TMS has been cleared by the FDA for the treatment of serious depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Among invasive neurotechnology, ECoG is a well-established version of such technology Neely et al. Although invasive technologies are linked with numerous dangers e. Improved non-invasive technologies become more competitive, with the aim of enhancing perceived benefits in relation to associated dangers.

Various studies are focused at decoding certain mental states and speech using non-invasive neuroimaging Anumanchipalli et al. These findings demonstrate the prospects of deep learning in neural decoding for human enhancement Asgher et al.

Scientist worldwide are working on brain implants to improve their long-term stability and biocompatibility so that they can be used outside of clinical trials. New treatments for debilitating brain illnesses are anticipated to emerge in the longer term as a result of a better understanding of the brain.

Current research into mood and emotion-related brain circuitry also has the potential to revolutionize psychiatry in a similar manner Holtzheimer and Mayberg, Brain mapping is already an exciting subject of science.

Brainbow and CLARITY are two new anatomic techniques that reveal unprecedented views of neural architecture Chung et al. Further, innovative technologies—including two-photon imaging, light sheet microscopy, and miniature microendoscopes—along with calcium imaging and voltage imaging—have enabled us to gain the first dynamic views of how the brain encodes information in modular circuits Ahrens et al.

Optogenetics has enabled precise manipulation of circuit activity with light pulses Tye and Deisseroth, Aware of the enormity of this aim, the President called on all stakeholders to join the BRAIN Initiative, including companies, health systems, patient advocacy groups, philanthropists, state governments, research universities, and private research institutes.

A better knowledge of how the brain generates complex ideas and behaviors would help progress in identifying, treating, and possibly curing neurological and mental diseases and disorders that wreck so many lives Jorgenson et al. Additionally, China is planning a national brain project Poo et al.

Hence, it will be critical for the research community to maintain a consistent dialogue regarding the scientific opportunities and challenges inherent in these large-scale projects Jorgenson et al.

fMRI advancements have provided us with more accurate maps of human brain activity, enabling for more exact localization of complex activities such as language, emotion, decision-making, and hallucinations Schölvinck et al.

This section deals with long-term prospects for augmentation techniques that have only recently made the transition from science fiction to scientific theory and investigation. Figure 4 illustrates the predicted future of various non-invasive and invasive brain augmentation techniques.

Figure 4. Future prospects of neuroscience technologies. The picture highlights future development and applications of neuroscience technologies for different medical and non-medical purposes Cinel et al.

In general, it is envisaged that BCIs for communication and control have advanced sufficiently to used widely, particularly in sectors where reaction times greater than those of the musculoskeletal system are necessary or covert communication is required.

However, it is also obvious that many neurological technologies for enhancing human performance will continue to transfer outside the lab for field testing, with some even utilized in normal use over this time period Dresler et al.

Non-invasive brain stimulation to children may provide benefits superior than those achieved in adults. Thus, non-invasive stimulation treatment may be more reliable and constant in children. To mitigate this risk, future study should focus on investigation of the physiological effects of non-invasive brain stimulation in children.

These characteristics will aid in clarifying the potential therapeutic efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation in children at multiple levels of complexity, providing a realistic basis for large-scale clinical implementation of such stimulation regimens Vicario and Nitsche, Given the benefits of each neuroscience technology, it seems likely that each will continue to evolve over the next two decades.

In terms of current and future uses, EEG and fNIRS may be the ideal techniques due to their portability, low cost, non-invasiveness, and extensive use in BCI and neuroergonomics studies. If dry electrode technology continues to advance at its current rate, EEG may become even more realistic Cinel et al.

As long as the risks associated with the presence of electrodes inside the body are less, invasive brain activity surveillance techniques like ECoG or implanted electrodes will become increasingly ethical and medically acceptable. However, invasive procedures may be more accurate and successful in viewing brain activity, if current advancements in recording technology continue Pesaran et al.

In terms of neurostimulation technologies, the best advantages are offered by tES, which is portable, generally inexpensive, and non-invasive.

The recent development of a higher resolution variant of tES indicates that further advances are on the way Eventually, FUS may outperform both technologies in terms of resolution and portability, but it is unknown if it will ever be viable to simultaneously stimulate many sites and huge portions of the brain.

It is obvious that invasive approaches, such as implanted electrodes, will provide a more direct and precise means to influence brain activity Cinel et al. The authors are optimistic about the future of brain augmentation based on the present pace of advancement in neuroscience technologies.

However, as neurotechnologies develop, the need for unambiguous ethical governance grows more pressing. Just as smart phones and the Internet changed how we lived 20 years ago, brain machine interfaces 20 years from now, may enable more intimate and direct collaborations between brains and technology, enabling enhancement of sensory, motor and cognitive skills, communications and can help in treating various neurological conditions.

Recent research and funding priorities indicate that this sort of technologies will improve significantly over the next two decades. However many neuroethical issues and challenges have already been identified with such neuroscience technology but a hypothetical scenario where there is a high demand in 20 years for non-invasive brain augmentation devices that can improve attention, memory, learning, mood, or inter-person communication is considered.

It is possible that manufacturer, supplier, or user entities will independently adopt anticipatory steps to manage such dangers. To build ethically directed neurotechnologies that advance humanity to new heights in the near future, we propose acceptable ethical frameworks for standards, government programmes, oversight, and liabilities.

The future will demonstrate if we become cyborgs and what we will see when we look back on current neurotechnologies. We must debate the dangers we are ready to take—and whether there are unexplored roads we do not wish to travel. NJ collected data and drafted the entire manuscript.

MS and GA drafted and revised the manuscript. VR, BA, and AA revised the manuscript critically. VS helped in the drafting of figures for the article. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This work was funded by the Institutional Fund Projects under grant no. Therefore, authors gratefully acknowledge technical and financial support from Ministry of Education and Deanship of Scientific Research DSR , King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

We are immensely thankful to the management of SBS University, Balawala, Dehradun for technical support in writing this article.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Adaikkan, C. Gamma entrainment: impact on neurocircuits, glia and therapeutic opportunities. Trends Neurosci. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

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