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Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention

Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention

Eating the right foods before a Pre-wprkout can maximize performance and speed up recovery. PLoS One. Share on Pinterest. Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention

Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention -

Pre-workout supplements are performance-boosting products intended for consumption prior to a workout. Their popularity has increased in recent years, with some estimates suggesting they are the second most commonly consumed type of supplement, behind multivitamins 1.

Ingredients range in type and amount, depending on the product. Most often, pre-workout supplements include caffeine as an active ingredient along with a combination of other compounds such as creatine, amino acids, and vitamins.

We evaluated third-party tested, multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements on an individual basis and compared ingredients with the research to support their effectiveness. Considering the differences across brands, we looked at the following attributes to determine which supplements made the list:.

Each product in this article:. One dollar sign means the product is rather affordable, whereas three dollar signs indicate a higher cost. Vega is a plant-based supplement company with a line of sport-specific products that are third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport.

The Vega Sport Pre-Workout Energizer is our pick for the best plant-based pre-workout because it combines caffeine and carbohydrates, a combination that has been shown to boost performance 2 , 3.

One serving contains mg of caffeine per serving, plus 16 grams of carbohydrates, which are primarily from coconut palm sugar and brown rice syrup.

Each serving contains the same amount of caffeine as a cup of home-brewed coffee — a smaller amount than is typical for pre-workout supplements. A single serving also contains sodium chloride, potassium, magnesium, and calcium — electrolytes that play a vital role in hydration 4.

In addition, a single serving contains 1. One serving contains 85 mg of caffeine per scoop in addition to a nitric oxide booster made of a combination of spinach, beet, and kale, all of which provide a source of dietary nitrates.

Dietary nitrates are compounds that positively affect exercise performance when converted to nitric oxide after ingestion. Nitric oxide has been found to increase blood flow to working muscles, improve oxygen efficiency during exercise, and reduce time to exhaustion 7 , 8.

This plant-based supplement also contains vitamins B12, C, and K and an antioxidant blend. Just keep in mind that this product contains erythritol, a sugar alcohol, which some people may prefer to avoid.

One serving contains 5 grams of creatine, 1. This pre-workout is our pick for the best for recovery because it contains L-citrulline , a nonessential amino acid that may aid recovery by reducing muscle soreness after exercise 9 , The additions of creatine and beta-alanine also offer performance-enhancing benefits.

At the recommended intake of 3—5 grams per day, creatine has been found to act as a performance-enhancing compound that also increases lean muscle mass when used in combination with short, high intensity exercise bouts Additionally, beta-alanine has a performance-enhancing effect through mechanisms that delay muscle fatigue.

Research suggests that doses of 4—6 grams per day for 2—4 weeks are the most effective One scoop contains 75 mg of caffeine and 5 grams of TruBeet Beet Root Extract.

Because it contains beetroot — a source of dietary nitrates that may have a positive effect on endurance exercise performance — this our top choice pre-workout for endurance exercise 13 , The powder is sweetened with a combination of sugar and stevia leaf and is free of artificial flavors and colors.

Promix Pre-Workout comes in six flavors, all of which are third-party tested. The Lemon flavor is also NSF Certified for Sport. One serving of this pre-workout supplement contains mg of caffeine and 3.

A single serving also includes 1 gram of taurine , an amino acid that may help reduce delayed onset muscle soreness This supplement is our top pick for focus because it also contains L-tyrosine , a nonessential amino acid that may have a positive effect on cognitive function 16 , One drawback is the higher dose of beta-alanine, which can cause a tingling sensation known as paraesthesia.

One flavor, Strawberry Lemonade, is also NSF Certified for Sport. One serving of this pre-workout contains mg of caffeine, 2. Beta-alanine has been found to affect muscle fatigue and improve strength performance when taken at the recommended dose of 4—6 grams per day for 2—4 weeks.

However, it can cause uncomfortable side effects in some people Gnarly Pre-Workout also contains citrulline malate, a compound that may have a positive effect on performance during high intensity exercise.

Citrulline malate has been found to improve blood flow to working muscles while also reducing fatigue during high intensity exercise and strength training.

However, research is mixed regarding dose and effectiveness 18 , Ascent Pre-Workout is third-party tested and Informed Sport Certified.

One serving contains mg of caffeine and 5 grams of protein from whey protein isolate. While the caffeine in this pre-workout does offer a performance boost, the minimal protein per serving is unlikely to affect performance or recovery.

However, the supplement can still contribute to total daily protein intake to support muscle protein synthesis 4 , 20 , 21 , With mg of caffeine per serving, Pre-Kaged is higher in caffeine than many other pre-workouts.

Up to mg of caffeine per day has been found to be safe for consumption, with milligrams per kilogram of body weight providing a guide for customizing based on individual needs. Research shows that 1. Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout also contains L-citrulline, BCAAs, beta-alanine, creatine HCL, and a proprietary blend of antioxidants.

Vital Performance PRE is a pre-workout supplement in the sport-specific line of the Vital Proteins brand. A 2-scoop gram serving of the pre-workout powder contains mg of caffeine and 1. It also provides 5 grams of BCAAs and 5 grams of collagen peptides. The addition of collagen to this pre-workout supplement makes it our top choice for injury prevention.

Collagen plays an important role in the function of connective tissue. Research suggests that collagen supplementation may be beneficial for injury prevention and have a positive effect on joint health 25 , 26 , True Athlete Natural Energized Training Formula 2.

One serving contains 3 grams of micronized creatine monohydrate, 1. It also includes nitrates from beetroot extract. The powder is available in one flavor, Fruit Punch, and is free of artificial sweeteners and flavors. Its lower price point makes it our top choice for a budget-friendly pre-workout.

This approach may be cumbersome for those who are looking for a simple pre-workout supplement routine. However, the ability to split the ingredients based on individual needs may be appealing to some.

The combination includes creatine, an amino acid complex, and a sustained-release formulation of beta-alanine. All three formulations are caffeine-free, making this our top choice for those looking to avoid caffeine.

In addition, all three products are third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport. One serving of the bundle provides 1. As Kelly Jones, MS, RD, performance dietitian and owner of StudentAthleteNutrition. Checking labels and product websites is the best way to confirm that the product you choose is third-party tested.

Pre-workout supplements can offer a variety of performance benefits, depending on their active ingredients and the amounts they contain.

Common ingredients in pre-workout supplements, such as caffeine, beta-alanine, and creatine, may have a positive effect on performance when taken in the amounts recommended in the research 28 , Research suggests that caffeine has an effect on perceived effort, beta-alanine has an effect on fatigue during high intensity exercise, and creatine contributes to increases in strength when taken over a period of time 12 , 23 , Additional pre-workout ingredients, such as tyrosine, may influence cognitive function, and others, such as nitrates, may have a positive effect on endurance 7 , 8 , For this reason, prioritizing diet and recovery before adding a pre-workout supplement is the most advantageous approach for performance.

Always talk with a sports dietitian or another healthcare professional before taking a supplement. Because pre-workout supplements vary in ingredient composition, it can be difficult to compare brands and dosages. Knowing which ingredients impact performance can help you determine which supplement is best for you.

Caffeine is a known central nervous stimulant that offers a performance benefit when taken prior to exercise. Be sure to look for a pre-workout that contains the optimal caffeine dose according to research Beta-alanine is a nonessential amino acid that plays a role in buffering muscle pH during high intensity exercise such as sprinting.

Nitrates are found in foods such as beets, celery, and leafy green vegetables like spinach. Nitrates enhance performance by acting to dilate blood vessels and increase blood flow.

Its effect is not as immediate as those of other compounds, such as caffeine. Research indicates that creatine monohydrate must be taken over a consistent period of time to have a performance benefit 11 , It will take, depending on the individual, about 30 days to saturate the muscles with a creatine dose of 3—5 grams daily.

Other ingredients, such as proprietary antioxidant blends, herbs, and high dose vitamins and minerals, require more research to confirm their effectiveness for supporting athletic performance. Potential side effects from pre-workout supplements depend on the ingredient types and amounts found in the supplement.

Some common ingredients can result in side effects that may be unpleasant for some people. Common ingredients in pre-workout supplements and their potential side effects are listed below.

Pre-workout supplements may be appropriate for both untrained and trained people looking for a performance boost. Ingredient formulations will greatly influence the effects of the pre-workout supplement.

Pre-workout supplements often contain stimulants, such as caffeine, that may not be appropriate for some people. Dietary protein is known for its role in lean tissue repair and growth so it is recommended to consume g after training, as part of a daily intake of 1.

Alongside protein, post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion is also advocated to promote muscle glycogen synthesis to perform subsequent high-intensity training. For sports performance dietary protein and carbohydrates get the headlines for their role in protein synthesis and energy availability, however dietary fat is equally important for performance health.

Overconsumption of certain fats may negatively influence injury risk, due to the pro-inflammatory properties of excessive trans and omega-6 fatty acids. Anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids should be prioritised to promote immune function, protein synthesis, brain function and recovery from exercise.

Saturated fat intake should also be controlled; it is important for anabolic hormone production and structuring cell membranes, but too much may impair performance and increase fat mass due to its high calorie value. Diets that lack important nutrients leave the body in a state of nutrient deficiency that can impair physiological function and cause injury.

When blood levels of nutrients are low, the body will source it from internal stores endogenous production , for example, calcium may be extracted from bone when blood calcium levels are low.

This can ultimately leave you prone to bone injuries. Eating a rainbow a day is an effective technique to obtain all the nutrients required to optimise performance and boost recovery.

Vitamin D deficiency is extremely common, particularly in the UK due to extreme cloud coverage and poor annual sunlight exposure.

Vitamin D plays a vital role in bone and calcium homeostasis, immune function and muscle health, and is associated with increased injury incidence when vitamin D status is low.

Maintaining hydration in sport is vital for exercise performance and dehydration can lead to injury if not regulated. Therefore, hydration testing in athletes is important while training and exercising. Post-exercise alcohol ingestion impairs recovery and adaptations to training by blunting rehydration, protein and glycogen synthesis.

Even when co-ingested with protein, alcohol suppresses the anabolic response in skeletal muscle, and carbohydrate ingestion only partially offsets the deleterious effects of alcohol on muscle glycogen resynthesis.

Alcohol should therefore not be ingested in close proximity to exercise to maximise recovery and training adaptations, and boost subsequent performance and reduce the risk of injury.

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Sport Sports nutrition for injury prevention techniques Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention can disrupt Pfe-workout workout Preworkout for weeks, months…or longer. A proper training diet can help reduce your risk of foor related injuries no matter your current exercise program. The following are dietary guidelines to support you and your active lifestyle. Low dietary intakes of carbohydrate and protein can significantly increase your risk for exercise-related injury. To help prevent injury fuel up with both carbohydrate and protein hours before your workout and within 30 minutes after.

Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention -

Summary of nutrition and hydration recommendations and examples can be found in the table at the end of this article. Remember, you cannot out-train poor nutrition and hydration. Food is fuel and your body needs good nutrition to train and perform at your best!

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Wrist Sprains Fueling and Hydrating Before, During and After Exercise. How Should I Fuel and Hydrate BEFORE Exercise? of fluid How Should I Fuel and Hydrate DURING Exercise? For exercise lasting less than 60 minutes : Fuel: Eating may not be necessary for short practice or competition period Hydrate: Water is the fluid of choice during most physical activity For exercise lasting more than 60 minutes : Fuel: Having a carbohydrate rich snack can help maintain your energy level throughout the long practice or competition period Hydrate: Sports drink may be helpful by keeping you hydrated as well as maintaining electrolyte levels Try drinking oz.

Within minutes after exercise : Fuel: Fuel the body with carbohydrate and protein to maximize recovery Replenish the carbohydrate stores following exercise so the body is ready for your next workout Protein helps with the repair and recovery of the muscles Hydrate: Replenish fluid lost during exercise to help the body return to optimal body temperature Rehydrate with oz.

Int J Sports Med. Sherman WM, Brodowicz G, Wright DA, Allen WK, Simonsen J, Dernbach A. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Ivy JL, Goforth HW Jr.

Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. J Appl Physiol. Widrick JJ, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Hickey MS, McConell GK, Tanaka H. Carbohydrate feedings and exercise performance: effect of initial muscle glycogen concentration.

Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, et al. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Stecker RA, Harty PS, Jagim AR, Candow DG, Kerksick CM. Timing of ergogenic aids and micronutrients on muscle and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, et al.

International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. Kerksick CM, Arent S, Schoenfeld BJ, Stout JR, Campbell B, Wilborn CD, et al.

Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? Harty PS, Zabriskie HA, Stecker RA, Currier BS, Tinsley GM, Surowiec K, et al. Caffeine timing improves lower-body muscular performance: a randomized trial.

Front Nutr. Forbes SC, Krentz JR, Candow DG. Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: a within-subject design.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. Lu CC, Ke CY, Wu WT, Lee RP. L-Glutamine is better for treatment than prevention in exhaustive exercise. Front Physiol. Keywords: timing, peri-nutrition, post-exercise, pre-exercise, performance, training adaptations. Citation: Kerksick CM and Pugh JN Editorial: Pre-workout nutrition.

Sports Act. Living Received: 12 July ; Accepted: 13 July ; Published: 21 July Edited and Reviewed by: David Christopher Nieman , Appalachian State University, United States.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Kerksick ckerksick lindenwood. Export citation EndNote Reference Manager Simple TEXT file BibTex. Check for updates. EDITORIAL article. Living, 21 July Sec.

Editorial: Pre-workout nutrition Chad M. Pugh 2. Editorial on the Research Topic Pre-workout nutrition For decades, athletes have manipulated what foods they have consumed to maximize their performance and the adaptations their bodies make to the physical training they complete.

E PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

Preventiln nutrition nurrition for injury prevention and Gut health supplements when Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention and active mutrition suffer a setback. Injuries are an inevitable part Fat burners for enhanced energy levels sport. While injury may be an assumed risk associated Healthy habits physical activity, there are nurtition cost-effective nutrition strategies that complement standard therapy and can reduce the risk of injury and aid in recovery. RDs who encounter individuals with activity-related injuries must gain an understanding of injury types and the current evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the treatment and prevention of these injuries. In particular, they need to become familiar with nutrition recommendations for energy, protein, carbohydrates, and fats and whether supplements may be of benefit for soft tissue and bone injuries. Injury Types The most common exercise-related injuries affect muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments. Primary concerns during an injury include muscle and strength loss.

Editorial on the Research Topic Pre-workout nutrition. For decades, athletes have manipulated Pre-workoug foods they have consumed to maximize their performance and the adaptations nktrition bodies make to preventionn physical training they complete. The roots of nutrient timing date mutrition to pervention original Scandinavian Green tea extract for mood of Bergstrom that popularized Pre-wkrkout collection of skeletal muscle tissue and made some of the first inferences to Green tea digestion connection between glycogen levels and carbohydrate intake 1.

Research in the early preventioon then provided Calorie intake of the first experimental evidence which demonstrated nutririon when nutrients are consumed may Pe-workout recovery potential and subsequent performance 45.

The popularity of nutrient Fat burners for enhanced energy levels exploded when research by the late Kevin Tipton first suggested that pre-exercise feeding of essential amino acids with carbohydrate may promote higher rates of muscle protein synthesis than when those nutrients were ingested after exercise Carbohydrate metabolism and glycogen breakdown. The flames of this injjry were prevsntion stoked by Fat burners for enhanced energy levels initial work by Cribb et al.

Prevdntion that time, research in this area has been consistent with multiple Natural weight loss coaching articles injjry have summarized the literature Herbal hunger reduction 8 — While Pre-wworkout majority of the Glutamine and muscle soreness has focused on Organic plant extracts surrounding macronutrient administration, Anti-cancer advocacy investigations have started to explore the impact of various micronutrients 8caffeine 12and amino acids such as creatine 13 and, injurj recently, glutamine Figure 1 has been developed to highlight the different Fat burners for enhanced energy levels prevenyion have been investigated or purported Pre-woorkout their ability Herbal weight loss aids impact physical performance preventioj adaptations to physical training when preventiob prior to innury or a training session.

Figure 1. Nutritional ingredients purported to impact acute exercise responses or exercise training adaptations. The aim of Weight loss tips for athletes Research Topic was to coffee bean detox a Hormone-balancing detox diets Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention avenue for articles injurg highlighted nutritoin topics on nutritional support for nutritin including diet composition, supplements, and meal timing surrounding training fo sport.

As the literature base of nutrient timing has evolved, more research is needed to Sports nutrition certification scientists, athletes, and practitioners Preventon how and Liver detoxification weight loss nutrient timing should be considered.

This Research Topic includes seven original articles that Low glycemic for diabetes explored the Pre-wworkout of ingesting different ingredients prior Pre-workouf some form of exercise.

Fat burners for enhanced energy levels with ATP has previously been prevntion to positively impact health and exercise performance, but the optimal dose is unknown. de Moura et prevengion. demonstrated Fat burners for enhanced energy levels nutriion mg dose of ATP nutrihion to resistance training exercise injyry needed to improve performance Pre-workouh Fat burners for enhanced energy levels doses positively impact perceived exertion.

Benjamin et injurry. An nutrotion study by Che Pre-wrkout al. investigated the impact of oral administration of Prs-workout on mitigating the onset and nurition of metabolic nutritkon after high-intensity interval exercise. Three studies in our Research Topic preventikn the impact of creatine prior to fir.

Negro et al. supplemented 18 adult males with either a placebo, creatine citrate, ijnury a multi-ingredient combination Caffeine and dehydration nutrients containing creatine nutritiln found that differences in the time to perform an established task and various EMG parameters were exhibited between the combination of nutrients and placebo.

No differences, however, were found between creatine citrate and the other supplementation conditions. Dinan et al. reported that the timing of creatine ingestion pre- vs. post-workout consumption in conjunction with a daily dose of protein and carbohydrate was not responsible for any further changes in strength or body composition after 8 weeks of supplementation in 34 healthy resistance-trained male and female collegiate athletes.

Candow et al. reviewed the literature on creatine timing and concluded that the current literature is inconclusive on whether or not creatine ingestion or after a workout offers a strategic advantage and put forth a call for researchers to further investigate this topic.

Finally, Ratliff et al. used a randomized, crossover design with 15 healthy females to examine the impact of pre-exercise ingestion of carbohydrate or two different sources of protein on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation throughout and after a minute bout of moderate intensity treadmill exercise.

The authors concluded that carbohydrate ingestion increased carbohydrate oxidation greater than no nutrient ingestion while no changes were observed for carbohydrate or fat oxidation when either source of protein was consumed prior to each exercise bout.

Alternatively, both protein sources triggered increased rates of energy expenditure when compared to carbohydrate ingestion. In summary, the articles submitted to this Research Topic contribute to our understanding of how pre-exercise consumption of different nutrients can impact exercise performance and how we can expect our body to response to regular exercise training.

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work and approved it for publication. CK has received and continues to receive external funding from companies that do business in exercise and nutrition and currently serves as a paid advisor for different companies who do business in areas related to exercise and nutrition.

The remaining author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Bergstrom J, Hultman E. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: an enhancing factor localized to the muscle cells in man. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

Sherman WM, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Miller JM. Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. Int J Sports Med. Sherman WM, Brodowicz G, Wright DA, Allen WK, Simonsen J, Dernbach A. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Ivy JL, Goforth HW Jr.

Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. J Appl Physiol. Widrick JJ, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Hickey MS, McConell GK, Tanaka H. Carbohydrate feedings and exercise performance: effect of initial muscle glycogen concentration. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, et al.

Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.

Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Stecker RA, Harty PS, Jagim AR, Candow DG, Kerksick CM.

Timing of ergogenic aids and micronutrients on muscle and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing.

Kerksick CM, Arent S, Schoenfeld BJ, Stout JR, Campbell B, Wilborn CD, et al. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? Harty PS, Zabriskie HA, Stecker RA, Currier BS, Tinsley GM, Surowiec K, et al.

Caffeine timing improves lower-body muscular performance: a randomized trial. Front Nutr. Forbes SC, Krentz JR, Candow DG. Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: a within-subject design.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. Lu CC, Ke CY, Wu WT, Lee RP. L-Glutamine is better for treatment than prevention in exhaustive exercise. Front Physiol. Keywords: timing, peri-nutrition, post-exercise, pre-exercise, performance, training adaptations.

Citation: Kerksick CM and Pugh JN Editorial: Pre-workout nutrition. Sports Act. Living Received: 12 July ; Accepted: 13 July ; Published: 21 July Edited and Reviewed by: David Christopher NiemanAppalachian State University, United States.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Kerksick ckerksick lindenwood. Export citation EndNote Reference Manager Simple TEXT file BibTex.

Check for updates. EDITORIAL article. Living, 21 July Sec. Editorial: Pre-workout nutrition Chad M. Pugh 2. Editorial on the Research Topic Pre-workout nutrition For decades, athletes have manipulated what foods they have consumed to maximize their performance and the adaptations their bodies make to the physical training they complete.

E PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Keywords: timing, peri-nutrition, post-exercise, pre-exercise, performance, training adaptations Citation: Kerksick CM and Pugh JN Editorial: Pre-workout nutrition. Edited and Reviewed by: David Christopher NiemanAppalachian State University, United States © Kerksick and Pugh.

This article is part of the Research Topic Pre-workout Nutrition View all 8 Articles. People also looked at.

: Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention

Nutrition for Injury Prevention and Recovery | Uphill Athlete WHY Eat Before a workout? Pre-wworkout we Fat burners for enhanced energy levels the benefits nijury coordinating workouts with food intake-both nutritin and quantity-your first question might focus PPre-workout breakfast as in, should you skip Dental check-up or some preventin fast-and-burn preventiin. The roots of nutrient timing prevehtion back to the original Fat burners for enhanced energy levels research of Bergstrom that popularized percutaneous collection of skeletal muscle tissue and made some of the first inferences to the connection between glycogen levels and carbohydrate intake 1. Physical activities such as hiking, running, weight training, swimming and sports are good for your health. Of the more specific issues for the athlete, undoubtedly the biggest factor is the avoidance of low energy availability, which is essential to avoid negative consequences for bone Papageorgiou et al. Immobilization induces anabolic resistance in human myofibrillar protein synthesis with low and high dose amino acid infusion. For athletes, their bodies are their most valuable asset.
Nutrition for Injury Prevention and Recovery

Updated: Sep 20, Nutrition has a profound impact on our bodies, with a balanced diet that maximises overall health and fitness being the underlying foundation which supports sports performance and reduces the risk of injury.

A well-balanced diet incorporates enough carbohydrate and fat to fuel activity, protein to rebuild muscle as well as vitamins and minerals to boost immunity and strengthen bones. Poor nutrition after an injury can also reduce the speed of recovery back to full fitness and strength.

Carbohydrates, protein and fat are all essential for exercise and recovery as well as everyday life and health. Fuel Carbohydrates are used by the body for fuel during exercise, stored within the body as glycogen, but these stores are limited.

Muscle-protein breakdown occurs in both endurance and strength training activities, therefore you need an adequate intake of dietary protein to repair muscle damage caused by exercise.

Essential fats Fats provide another fuel source for the body and also essential fatty acids, like omega-3 which make and repair cell membranes and reduce inflammation in the body which helps promote recovery and repair post exercise and injury.

Calcium and vitamins for strong bones Stress fractures can be common in runners, as its a high impact sport. All bone fractures lead to the risk of soft tissue issues arising during the recovery process. Getting adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D every day helps develop and maintain strong bones to reduce risk of fractures.

Vitamin C plays a role in tissue repair and formation of collagen which provides strength and flexibility for ligaments, tendons and forms the structure of bones. Our brains use a significant proportion of our glycogen store and loss of focus or reduced decision making capacity is often an early indicator that these stores are low which increases the risk of an injury due to a mistake such as a fall.

But given the nature of the continuous repetitive movement required to train and take part in endurance sports, and the very often extreme environment these sports are undertaken in, the chances of an injury occurring are pretty high.

In this article I will be referring to musculoskeletal injuries skeletal muscle, bones, tendons, and ligaments incurred as a result of physical activity.

The role of nutrition strategies in injury can be both a preventive measure and an important part of the rehab process. There are s pecific nutrition strategies an athlete can follow after an injury that have been shown to improve recovery, thus reducing time spent away from training and activity, attenuating loss of fitness, and preserving sanity levels!

Poor nutrition practices can almost certainly increase risk of injury and will slow recovery, prolonging nonparticipation in the activities we enjoy. Chronic low energy availability LEA is a major determinant for increasing the risk of an injury occurring.

The drive to restrict food intake over a significant period of time in an effort to keep body weight down compromises bone health, which can result in poor bone density and an increased risk of bone fractures. LEA has also been shown to weaken tendons and ligaments.

Underfueling for the effort required can also lead to poor recovery and increased fatigue , increasing the risk of illness and an injury occurring as the result of a mistake such as a fall. The aim is to meet energy requirements, providing your body with the energy and nutrients it needs to fully heal.

Meeting your energy needs will also slow muscle mass loss and tendon mass loss and function. If deficiencies in energy and protein occur via a reduced food intake during the early phase of an injury, wound healing is impaired and muscle mass and tendon function loss are exacerbated.

Regardless of the time point of your injury, it is paramount first and foremost to eat a healthy diet that provides sufficient energy and nutrients. This will prevent unnecessary weight loss and nutritional deficiencies e. The opposite is also true: the temptation to comfort ourselves with alcohol and palatable sugary and fatty foods, resulting in body fat gain, should also be avoided.

Muscle mass loss starts to occur within as little as 36 hours following inactivity. In an attempt to preserve muscle mass, protein should be kept at habitual intakes I recommend Uphill Athletes consume 1.

Protein intake should be spread evenly throughout the day at 4-hour intervals as meals ~0. This protein should come from good-quality protein sources that provide the essential amino acids required for muscle mass e.

Keep up good hydration. This improves blood flow to and from the site of injury for repair or wound healing. Avoid or at the very least limit alcohol in the early stages of any injury as it has been shown to impair wound healing and delay recovery time.

During the early phase of an injury occurring, you actually want the inflammatory response to take place i. However, a diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory foods is recommended. Ensure plenty of green leafy vegetables, berries, brightly colored fruits and vegetables, foods rich in polyphenols dark chocolate, green tea, nuts, seeds , and omegarich foods such as oily fish and mono- and polyunsaturated fats e.

Nutrition interventions to prevent or support recovery from injury should be with a food-first approach. Then add in the use of nutritional supplements where appropriate. Nutrition strategies will be individual and depend on the level of injury sustained, the extent to which it inhibits physical activity, and the time point at which the injury occurred.

The good work of nutrition never stands alone. The influence of nutrition on injury and recovery is strengthened by diligent rehabilitation and recommended rest, followed by good nights of sleep. Type above and press Enter to search. Press Esc to cancel. Close Menu.

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For example, whey protein contains the highest amount of leucine 2. If an athlete chooses a plant-based protein supplement, about 40 g of soy or pea protein—the highest quality of the plant-based options—is needed to match the 2. Carbohydrates provide energy for healing during injury recovery.

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as olive oil, fish, flaxseeds, nuts, and avocado, may decrease the extent of prolonged inflammation after the initial inflammatory phase , which can be counterproductive to recovery. However, this is based on studies examining inflammation and function after exercise-induced muscle damage.

Given the potential risk of mercury contamination in fish oil supplements, the quality of fish oil should be taken into consideration. Creatine has been shown to be one of the most effective supplements for increasing lean body mass when combined with exercise. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables provide polyphenols and micronutrients, each of which can help speed the recovery process.

For example, polyphenols may help decrease muscle damage caused by inflammation. While these strategies provide more benefits for the muscle, vitamin C and gelatin have been suggested to stimulate greater collagen synthesis following a tendon or ligament injury.

Active individuals should focus on a food-first approach before supplementation. Keep in mind that for many of these findings, more research is needed to examine the benefits of the role of macro- and micronutrients in the prevention of or recovery from muscle injuries.

Bone Injury Treatment and Prevention Bone strength is determined earlier in life, yet bone loss occurs as a natural part of the aging process. Due to bone-related consequences ie, reduced calcium absorption and bone mineral density associated with a higher incidence of relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome, stress fractures are more common in active females.

Although there are many nutrients that play a role in bone health, the following nutrition factors may help support bone health and aid in the recovery and healing from bone injuries. Many female athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport studies have found that reductions in energy availability, especially if chronic, have been shown to reduce hormones estrogen, testosterone that are vital to bone formation and resorption.

Protein plays a role in the production of hormones that affect bone health and provide structure for the bone matrix. Adequate protein intake ~1. Contrary to previous beliefs, protein intakes higher than the recommended daily intake have no negative impact on bone health if calcium intake is adequate.

In fact, although more research is needed, higher protein intakes have been shown to have a small, beneficial impact on bone. Therefore, inadequate calcium intake can impair bone healing. Furthermore, one study found that consuming a calcium-rich meal or supplement ~1, to 1, mg before exercise can offset sweat calcium losses in endurance athletes.

Calcium-rich foods include milk, fortified orange juice, kale, tofu, yogurt, and sardines. Athletes can boost calcium intake by consuming milk dairy or soy and yogurt. It has been suggested that active individuals who are vitamin D deficient are at greater risk of bone fracture. Depending on vitamin D levels, supplementation may be needed especially during the winter months to ensure levels are adequate.

Of course, sunlight is the best source of vitamin D, but dietary sources include fatty fish, sun-exposed mushrooms, sardines, and milk. In addition, magnesium and vitamin K play an important role in bone health.

Vitamin K deficiency has been associated with increased fracture risk; magnesium deficiency may contribute to poor bone health. If intakes are below the dietary reference intake, supplementation may be needed. Considering that reversing low bone mineral density later in life is difficult, good nutrition habits that promote bone health and support the demands of sport should be emphasized during adolescence.

Finally, more research is needed to examine the long-term effects of dietary patterns on bone health in athletes. This review will focus on nutritional strategies to assist with the most common injuries, that is, skeletal muscle, bone, tendon, and ligament. We include a review of the extant literature that has looked at nutrition to prevent injuries and increase repair, as well as considering the change in energy requirements during the injury period.

Although such studies provide insights into potential nutritional strategies, it must be stressed that there are substantial differences between delayed onset muscle soreness and a major muscle tear, both in terms of the structural damage, as well as the level of immobilization and unloading that may occur.

From a nutrition perspective, it is important to consider the potential of nutrition to assist in injury prevention and prevent the loss of lean mass during immobilization, and to consider the change in energy requirements during the injury period along with any strategies that may promote muscle repair.

Given the crucial role of dietary protein in muscle protein turnover, it is not surprising that much attention has been given to dietary protein in the prevention of muscle injuries.

However, the evidence to support this hypothesis is, at best, equivocal, with some studies reporting a benefit Buckley et al.

In a recent systemic review, the balance of the evidence suggested that protein supplements taken acutely, despite increases in protein synthesis and anabolic intracellular signaling, provide no measurable reductions in exercise-induced muscle damage and enhanced recovery of muscle function Pasiakos et al.

This lack of an effect may be explained by the differing time courses between an acute muscle injury and muscle protein turnover, with adaptations to muscle protein turnover being a relatively slow process Tipton et al.

It can, therefore, be concluded that, given sufficient dietary protein is provided in the general diet of an athlete, additional protein intake will not prevent muscle injury or reduce postexercise muscle soreness.

However, to date, this hypothesis has not been fully explored in elite athletes following a true injury and, therefore, case study data may help to provide further insights. Although additional protein may not prevent a muscle injury, increased dietary protein may be beneficial after an injury both in terms of attenuating muscle atrophy and promoting repair.

Limb immobilization reduces resting muscle protein synthesis as well as induces an anabolic resistance to dietary protein Wall et al. This anabolic resistance can be attenuated although not prevented through increased dietary amino acid ingestion Glover et al.

It is beyond the scope of this manuscript to fully discuss what is appropriate protein intake for athletes and, for this, the reader is directed to several excellent reviews e. Contrary to popular belief, athletes engaged in whole-body resistance training are likely to benefit from more than the often cited 20 g of protein per meal, with recent research suggesting 40 g of protein may be a more optimum feeding strategy Macnaughton et al.

Protein intake should be equally distributed throughout the day, something that many elite athletes fail to achieve Gillen et al. In terms of an absolute amount of protein per day, increasing protein to 2. Taken together, despite the limitations of the current literature base, injured athletes may benefit from increasing their protein intake to overcome the immobilization-induced anabolic resistance as well as helping to attenuate the associated losses of lean muscle mass documented in injured athletes Milsom et al.

After a muscle injury, it is likely that athletic activities are reduced, if not stopped completely, to allow the muscle to recover, although some training in the noninjured limbs will likely continue. This reduction in activity results in reduced energy expenditure, which consequently requires a reduction in energy intake to prevent unwanted gains in body fat.

Given that many athletes periodize their carbohydrate intake, that is, increase their carbohydrate intake during hard training days while limiting them during light training or rest days, it seems appropriate that during inactivity, carbohydrate intake may need to be reduced Impey et al.

It should be stressed, however, that the magnitude of the reduction in energy intake may not be as drastic as expected given that the healing process has been shown to result in substantial increases in energy expenditure Frankenfield, , whereas the energetic cost of using crutches is much greater than that of walking Waters et al.

Moreover, it is common practice for athletes to perform some form of exercise in the noninjured limb s while injured to maintain strength and fitness.

It is, therefore, crucial that athletes do not reduce nutrition, that is, under fuel at the recovery stage through being too focused upon not gaining body fat; thus, careful planning is needed to manage the magnitude of energy restriction during this crucial recovery period. One thing that is generally accepted is that, when reducing energy intake, macronutrients should not be cut evenly as maintaining a high-protein intake will be essential to attenuate loss of lean muscle mass.

Poor attention has been paid to dietary lipids in the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries. In this context, mainly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 PUFA have been studied because of their anti-inflammatory properties. Many studies have investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the loss of muscle function and inflammation following exercise-induced muscle damage, with the balance of the literature suggesting some degree of benefit e.

This level of n-3 PUFA supplementation is far in excess of what would be consumed in a typical diet and much greater than most suggested supplement regimes.

Given that it is not possible to predict when an injury may occur, it could be suggested that athletes should take n-3 PUFA supplements on a regular basis; however, the long-term daily dose requires further investigation. Again, however, relying on findings from the exercise-induced muscle damage model to rule on a benefit of n-3 PUFA in macroscopic muscle injury prevention or recovery is speculative at this stage.

Many of these nutrition strategies are claimed to work through either acting as an antioxidant or through a reduction in inflammation. In reality, unless there is a dietary deficiency, the vast majority of nutritional interventions have limited research to support such claims.

Some of the most frequently studied and supplemented micronutrients to help with skeletal muscle injury are summarized in Table 1.

Finally, consideration must be given to the balance between muscle recovery and muscle adaptation. There is growing evidence that nutritional strategies that may assist with muscle recovery, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant strategies, may attenuate skeletal muscle adaptions Owens et al.

It would, therefore, be prudent to differentiate between an injury that requires time lost from the sport and typical exercise-induced muscle soreness when it comes to implementing a nutritional recovery strategy. Where adaptation comes before recovery, for example, in a preseason training phase, the best nutritional advice may simply to follow a regular diet and allow adaptations to occur naturally.

Stress fractures are common bone injuries suffered by athletes that have a different etiology than contact fractures, which also have a frequent occurrence, particularly in contact sports.

Stress fractures are overuse injuries of the bone that are caused by the rhythmic and repeated application of mechanical loading in a subthreshold manner McBryde, Given this, athletes involved in high-volume, high-intensity training, where the individual is body weight loaded, are particularly susceptible to developing a stress fracture Fredericson et al.

The pathophysiology of stress fracture injuries is complex and not completely understood Bennell et al. That said, there is little direct information relating to the role of diet and nutrition in either the prevention or recovery from bone injuries, such as stress fractures. As such, the completion of this article requires some extrapolation from the information relating to the effects of diet and nutrition on bone health in general.

Palacios provides a brief summary of some of the key nutrients for bone health, which include an adequate supply of calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, potassium, and fluoride to directly support bone formation.

Other nutrients important to support bone tissue include manganese, copper, boron, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin K, vitamin C, and the B vitamins. Silicon might also be added to this list of key nutrients for bone health. Given this, the consumption of dairy, fruits, and vegetables particularly of the green leafy kind are likely to be useful sources of the main nutrients that support bone health.

Of the more specific issues for the athlete, undoubtedly the biggest factor is the avoidance of low energy availability, which is essential to avoid negative consequences for bone Papageorgiou et al.

In athletes, this poses the question of whether the effect of low energy availability on bone is a result of dietary restriction or high exercise energy expenditures. Low EA achieved through inadequate dietary energy intake resulted in decreased bone formation but no change in bone resorption, whereas low EA achieved through exercise did not significantly influence bone metabolism, highlighting the importance of adequate dietary intakes for the athlete.

Evidence of the impact of low energy availability on bone health, particularly in female athletes, comes from the many studies relating to both the Female Athlete Triad Nattiv et al.

A thorough review of these syndromes is beyond the scope of the current article; however, those interested are advised to make use of the existing literature base on this topic.

That said, this is likely to be an unrealistic target for many athlete groups, particularly the endurance athlete e.

This target may also be difficult to achieve in youth athletes who have limited time to fuel given the combined demands of school and training. In addition, a calorie deficit is often considered to drive the endurance phenotype in these athletes, meaning that work is needed to identify the threshold of energy availability above which there are little or no negative implications for the bone.

However, a recent case study on an elite female endurance athlete over a 9-year period demonstrated that it is possible to train slightly over optimal race weight and maintain sufficient energy availability for most of the year, and then reduce calorie intake to achieve race weight at specific times in the year Stellingwerff, This may be the ideal strategy to allow athletes to race at their ideal weight, train at times with low energy availability to drive the endurance phenotype, but not be in a dangerously low energy availability all year round.

Moran et al. The development of stress fractures was associated with preexisting dietary deficiencies, not only in vitamin D and calcium, but also in carbohydrate intake. Although a small-scale association study, these data provide some indication of potential dietary risk factors for stress fracture injury.

Miller et al. Similarly, other groups have shown a link between calcium intake and both bone mineral density Myburgh et al. Despite these initially encouraging findings, there remain relatively few prospective studies evaluating the optimal calcium and vitamin D intake in athletes relating to either a stress fracture prevention or b bone healing.

For a more comprehensive review of this area, readers are directed toward a recent review by Fischer et al. One further consideration that might need to be made with regard to the calcium intake of endurance athletes and possibly weight classification athletes practicing dehydration strategies to make weight is the amount of dermal calcium loss over time.

Although the amount of dermal calcium lost with short-term exercise is unlikely to be that important in some endurance athletes performing prolonged exercise bouts or multiple sessions per day e. Athletes are generally advised to consume more protein than the recommended daily allowance of 0.

More recently, however, several reviews Rizzoli et al. Conversely, inadequacies in dietary intake have a negative effect on physical performance, which might, in turn, contribute to an increased risk of injury.

This is as likely to be the case for the bone as it is for other tissues of importance to the athlete, like muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Despite this, there is a relative dearth of information relating to the effects of dietary intake on bone health in athletes and, particularly, around the optimal diet to support recovery from bone injury.

In the main, however, it is likely that the nutritional needs for bone health in the athlete are not likely to be substantially different from those of the general population, albeit with an additional need to minimize low energy availability states and consider the potentially elevated calcium, vitamin D, and protein requirements of many athletes.

Tendinopathy is one of the most common musculoskeletal issues in high-jerk sports. Jerk, the rate of change of acceleration, is the physical property that coaches and athletes think of as plyometric load.

Given that the volume of high-jerk movements increases in elite athletes, interventions to prevent or treat tendinopathies would have a significant impact on elite performance. The goal of any intervention to treat tendinopathy is to increase the content of directionally oriented collagen and the density of cross-links within the protein to increase the tensile strength of the tendon.

The most common intervention to treat tendinopathy is loading. The realization that tendons are dynamic tissues that respond to load began when the Kjaer laboratory demonstrated an increase in tendon collagen synthesis, in the form of increased collagen propeptides in the peritendinous space 72 hr after exercise Langberg et al.

They followed this up using stable isotope infusion to show that tendon collagen synthesis doubled within the first 24 hr after exercise Miller et al. Therefore, loading can increase collagen synthesis, and this may contribute to the beneficial effects of loading on tendinopathy.

Recently, combining loading with nutritional interventions has been proposed to further improve collagen synthesis Shaw et al. Nutrition has been recognized as being essential for collagen synthesis and tendon health for over years.

The two sailors given the oranges and lemon recovered within 6 days; however, the relationship between the citrus fruit and scurvy continued to be debated for over years.

In , Jerome Gross showed that guinea pigs on a vitamin C deficient diet did not synthesize collagen at a detectable level Gross, , making the molecular connection between vitamin C and scurvy.

The requirement for vitamin C in the synthesis of collagen comes from its role in the regulation of prolyl hydroxylase activity Mussini et al. As vitamin C is consumed in the hydroxylation reaction, and humans lack the l -gulono-γ-lactone oxidase enzyme required for the last step in the synthesis of vitamin C Drouin et al.

Even though a basal level of vitamin C is required for collagen synthesis, whether exceeding this value results in a concomitant increase in collagen synthesis has yet to be determined. Therefore, currently, there is no evidence that increasing vitamin C intake will increase collagen synthesis and prevent tendon injuries.

Like vitamin C, copper deficiency leads to impaired mechanical function of collagen-containing tissues, such as bone Jonas et al. However, the beneficial effects of copper are only seen in the transition from deficiency to sufficiency Opsahl et al. There is no further increase in collagen function with increasing doses of copper.

This sequence allows collagen to form the tight triple helix that gives the protein its mechanical strength. Because of the importance of glycine, some researchers have hypothesized that increasing dietary glycine would have a beneficial effect on tendon healing.

Vieira et al. The authors repeated the results in a follow-up study Vieira et al. Another potential source of the amino acids found in collagen is gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen. Gelatin is created by boiling the skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments of cattle, pigs, and fish.

Further chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatin breaks the protein into smaller peptides that are soluble in water and no longer form a gel. Because both gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen are derived from collagen, they are rich in glycine, proline, hydroxylysine, and hydroxyproline Shaw et al.

As would be expected from a dietary intervention that increases collagen synthesis, consumption of 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in athletes decreased knee pain from standing and walking Clark et al.

The decrease in knee pain could be the result of an improvement in collagen synthesis of the cartilage within the knee since cartilage thickness, measured using gadolinium labeled magnetic resonance imaging, increases with long-term consumption of 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen McAlindon et al.

The role of gelatin consumption in collagen synthesis was directly tested by Shaw et al. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study, subjects who consumed 15 g of gelatin showed twice the collagen synthesis, measured through serum propeptide levels, as either a placebo or a 5-g group.

Furthermore, when serum from subjects fed either gelatin or collagen is added to engineered ligaments, the engineered ligaments demonstrate more than twofold greater mechanics and collagen content Avey and Baar unpublished; Figure 1. Even though bathing the engineered ligaments in serum rich in procollagen amino acids provides a beneficial effect, this is a far cry from what would be seen in people.

However, these data suggest that consuming gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen may increase collagen synthesis and potentially decrease injury rate in athletes. Citation: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 29, 2; These and other nutraceuticals have recently been reviewed by Fusini et al.

Interestingly, many of these nutrients are thought to decrease inflammation, and the role of inflammation in tendinopathy in elite athletes remains controversial Peeling et al. Therefore, future work is needed to validate these purported nutraceuticals in the prevention or treatment of tendon or ligament injuries.

Although injuries are going to happen in athletes, there are several nutrition solutions that can be implemented to reduce the risk and decrease recovery time. To reduce the risk of injury, it is crucial that athletes do not have chronic low energy availability, as this is a major risk factor for bone injuries.

Cycling energy intake throughout the year to allow race weight to be achieved, while achieving adequate energy availability away from competitions, may be the most effective strategy.

It is also crucial for bone, muscle, tendon, and ligament health to ensure that there are no dietary deficiencies, especially low protein intake or inadequate vitamin C, D, copper, n-3 PUFA, or calcium. This highlights the importance of athletes having access to qualified nutrition support to help them achieve their goals without compromising health.

If an injury does occur, one of the key considerations during the injury is to ensure excessive lean muscle mass is not lost and that sufficient energy is consumed to allow repair, without significantly increasing body fat.

It is crucial to understand the change in energy demands and, at the same time, ensure sufficient protein is consumed for repair, especially since the muscle could become anabolic resistant. In terms of tendon health, there is a growing interest in the role of gelatin to increase collagen synthesis.

Studies are now showing that gelatin supplementation can improve cartilage thickness and decrease knee pain, and may reduce the risk of injury or accelerate return to play, providing both a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for tendon, ligament, and, potentially, bone health.

Where supplementation is deemed necessary e. Last but not least, more human-based research is needed, ideally in elite athlete populations, on the possible benefits of some macro- and micronutrients in the prevention or boosted recovery of injured athletes. Given that placebo-controlled, randomized control trials are exceptionally difficult to perform in elite athletes no athlete would want to be in a placebo group if there is a potential of benefit of an intervention, combined with the fact that the time course and pathology of the same injuries are often very different , it is important that high-quality case studies are now published in elite athletes to help to develop an evidence base for interventions.

All authors contributed equally to the manuscript, with each author writing specific sections and all authors editing the final manuscript prior to final submission.

They also declare no conflicts of interest related to this manuscript. Baar , K. Stress relaxation and targeted nutrition to treat patellar tendinopathy. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1 — Barry , D. Acute calcium ingestion attenuates exercise-induced disruption of calcium homeostasis.

PubMed ID: doi Barzel , U. Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone. Journal of Nutrition, , — Bell , P. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 40 , — Bennell , K. Risk factors for stress fractures. Sports Medicine, 28 , 91 — Blacker , S. Carbohydrate vs. protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7 , 2.

Buckley , J. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise.

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13 , — Clark , K. Albert , A. Close , G. The emerging role of free radicals in delayed onset muscle soreness and contraction-induced muscle injury.

Cobley , J. Influence of vitamin C and vitamin E on redox signaling: Implications for exercise adaptations. Cockburn , E. Vitamin C plays a role in tissue repair and formation of collagen which provides strength and flexibility for ligaments, tendons and forms the structure of bones.

Our brains use a significant proportion of our glycogen store and loss of focus or reduced decision making capacity is often an early indicator that these stores are low which increases the risk of an injury due to a mistake such as a fall. If its more than a couple of hours since a meal a pre-activity snack pairing protein with carbohydrate will mean glycogen stores are full before starting to reduce these effects.

Timing is everything Muscle tissue recovery from exercise happens most quickly in the 30mins - 1hour immediately after the activity—provided you eat during that time. Consuming protein with carbohydrate is optimal to promote both muscle repair as well as restock depleted muscle glycogen stores.

Speed up injury recovery with good nutrition Following an injury it is important to avoid overly restricting energy intake, even though activity levels may have dropped as the body needs energy and nutrients to fully heal and help reduce muscle mass loss and tendon mass loss and function.

Running checklist: head to feet. Why run in a group?

Does Fast-and-Burn Work for Weight Loss? is that the Question? Increased protein may not prevent muscle injury, but higher protein intakes 1. Fischer , V. Association of vitamin D with stress fractures: A retrospective cohort study. Monitoring body composition is important for health, performance but also for injury prevention.
Frontiers | Editorial: Pre-workout nutrition

Its effect is not as immediate as those of other compounds, such as caffeine. Research indicates that creatine monohydrate must be taken over a consistent period of time to have a performance benefit 11 , It will take, depending on the individual, about 30 days to saturate the muscles with a creatine dose of 3—5 grams daily.

Other ingredients, such as proprietary antioxidant blends, herbs, and high dose vitamins and minerals, require more research to confirm their effectiveness for supporting athletic performance. Potential side effects from pre-workout supplements depend on the ingredient types and amounts found in the supplement.

Some common ingredients can result in side effects that may be unpleasant for some people. Common ingredients in pre-workout supplements and their potential side effects are listed below.

Pre-workout supplements may be appropriate for both untrained and trained people looking for a performance boost. Ingredient formulations will greatly influence the effects of the pre-workout supplement.

Pre-workout supplements often contain stimulants, such as caffeine, that may not be appropriate for some people. Anyone with a chronic health condition, such as heart disease or high blood pressure, and anyone who is pregnant or nursing should consult a sports dietitian or another healthcare professional before taking a pre-workout supplement.

Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements have different ingredient amounts and variations that influence their effectiveness. Additionally, many pre-workout supplements include creatine in combination with other ingredients that also affect performance.

Other pre-workout ingredients, such as caffeine and beta-alanine, can have more immediate effects. This may make them more appropriate options for those who are looking for a performance boost after a single serving.

Before adding a pre-workout supplement to your routine, consider your nutritional needs and fitness goals. Optimal nutrition and improved fitness depend on a balanced diet that meets your individual needs. In addition to maintaining a nutritious diet, allowing enough time for recovery after workouts is essential.

Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. View prices, pros and cons, workout uses, ingredients, and more.

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The optimal timing of creatine supplementation is hotly debated. Learn about when to take creatine to maximize its impressive benefits. Learn about the best pre-workout nutrition strategies. Eating the right foods before a workout can maximize performance and speed up recovery.

Whether you're looking to ramp up your gym routine or simply fill the gaps in your diet, protein powder is a great ingredient to have on hand. Research is mixed on how creatine and caffeine interact and might affect your workouts. Find out what research says, pro and cons, and best practices.

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A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. The 11 Best Pre-Workout Supplements According to a Dietitian.

Medically reviewed by Jared Meacham, Ph. On this page How we chose Our picks Comparison table How to choose Benefits Ingredients Safety tips FAQs Bottom line. Share on Pinterest. How we vet brands and products Healthline only shows you brands and products that we stand behind.

Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations we make on our site. To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we: Evaluate ingredients and composition: Do they have the potential to cause harm?

Fact-check all health claims: Do they align with the current body of scientific evidence? Assess the brand: Does it operate with integrity and adhere to industry best practices?

We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness. Read more about our vetting process. Was this helpful? A quick look at the best pre-workout supplements. How we chose. Pros third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport vegan- and vegetarian-friendly gluten-free.

Shop now at Amazon. Pros third-party tested, NSF Certified for Sport, and Informed Choice for Sport Certified less expensive per serving than some other pre-workout supplements vegan- and vegetarian-friendly certified gluten-free certified organic sugar-free.

Cons available in only one flavor lower in caffeine than some other pre-workout supplements contains erythritol. Pros third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport vegan- and vegetarian-friendly gluten-free lower in added sugar than some other pre-workout supplements.

Cons contains a high dose of caffeine, which may not be suitable for those sensitive to caffeine pricier than some other pre-workout supplements contains beta-alanine, which may cause a tingling feeling in some people. Cons more expensive than some other pre-workout supplements available in only one flavor.

Cons only one flavor Lemon is NSF Certified for Sport contains a high dose of caffeine, which may not be suitable for those sensitive to caffeine contains beta-alanine, which may cause a tingling sensation in some people.

Pros third-party tested — all flavors NSF Content Certified vegan- and vegetarian-friendly gluten-free free of artificial flavors lower cost.

Cons only one flavor, Strawberry Lemonade, is NSF Certified for Sport contains a high dose of caffeine, which may not be suitable for those sensitive to caffeine contains beta-alanine, which may cause a tingling sensation in some people. Shop now at Gnarly.

Pros third-party tested and Informed Sport Certified less expensive per serving than many other pre-workout supplements certified gluten-free. Cons contains milk, one of the eight major allergens no vegan option available may not contain enough caffeine to affect performance or recovery.

Pros third-party tested and Informed Sport Certified vegan- and vegetarian-friendly gluten-free. Cons contains a high dose of caffeine, which may not be suitable for those sensitive to caffeine pricier than many other pre-workout supplements.

Shop now at Kaged. Pros third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport available in four flavors less expensive than many other pre-workout supplements. Cons not vegan- or vegetarian-friendly some reviews noting that customers dislike the taste.

Pros third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport gluten-free budget-friendly. Pros third-party tested and NSF Certified for Sport option to separate each ingredient to customize to your individual needs.

Shop now at Thorne Research. A comparison of the best pre-workouts. How to choose a pre-workout supplement. Benefits of pre-workouts. Science behind pre-workout supplements. Potential side effects. Frequently asked questions. The bottom line. How we reviewed this article: History.

Jul 11, Written By Allison Knott, MS, RD. Medically Reviewed By Jared Meacham, Ph. Mar 24, Written By Emily Cronkleton. Share this article. Read this next. By Ellen Landes, MS, RDN, CPT. The 5 Best Pre-Workouts for Pump. By Daniel Preiato, RD, CSCS. By Ellen Landes, MS, RDN, CPT and Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD.

When Is the Best Time to Take Creatine? By Grant Tinsley, Ph. Because chronic pain is often caused by inflammation. Your diet can play a major factor in fighting this inflammation. Adding anti-inflammatory foods to your diet can help deal with chronic pain.

When you add foods that reduce inflammation, you can reduce your pain and make it more manageable. You will not have to continually reach for anti-inflammatory medication. Foods can be your most powerful tool for fighting inflammation and pain.

But you should not just add as many foods as you can to your diet. Instead, you need to choose the right foods. Choosing the wrong foods can make your pain worse and accelerate the disease. Along with lowering inflammation and helping with pain management, your diet can affect your emotional and physical health.

So, eating a healthy diet is not only beneficial for preventing and treating injuries, but it can also improve your attitude and quality of life.

There are healthy foods that can help your body heal. And there are foods that can negatively affect your health. If you choose the wrong foods, you can make your pain and inflammation worse.

Some of these foods include fried foods, sugar, margarine, red meats, processed meats and refined carbohydrates. These types of foods have also been linked to heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition can play a major role in injury recovery and prevention.

However, most people do not understand exactly how to use nutrition for injury prevention. Proper nutrition is vital for staying healthy and staying active. At Sydney Sports and Exercise Physiologists , we will assess your situation and provide you with a personalised nutrition plan that will assist in your healing process and prevent future injuries.

A re you injured or looking to prevent future injuries? Nutrition can be the solution you are looking for. Our Physiologists are experts in their field. They know the best foods to treat and prevent injuries. To learn more about nutrition for injury recovery and prevention, call one of our convenient SSEP locations today.

Homebush Olympic Park. Camperdown Sydney University. Kensington UNSW. Rooty Hill.

Nutrition American Fitness Magazine. Originally Pre-workout nutrition for injury prevention in the spring issue of Nutritioj Fitness Magazine. Diet Immune system optimization exercise are dor primary pillars of a healthy lifestyle plan. But can coordinating eating and workout schedules improve our fitness results? And if so, how should our eating patterns differ before, during, and after activities? Melding a top-notch diet with stimulating exercise can be quite a challenge.

Author: JoJotaur

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