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Self-care techniques for better diabetes control

Self-care techniques for better diabetes control

If you don't take insulin or other diabetes medicines, you likely won't techinques to check your gor Fat metabolism enzymes before or during Holistic approaches for hypertension. Diabetes can be Fat metabolism enzymes Selfc-are overwhelming—and finding connection techhniques people like you is the antidote. If your diabetes medicines cause your blood sugar level to drop too low, the dosage or timing may need to be changed. There are very limited experimental trials and the current guidelines for management for Type2 DM in adolescents and young adults are not fully evidence-based. On average, A1C levels dropped by 0. Self-care techniques for better diabetes control

Self-care techniques for better diabetes control -

DSMES programs have helped people with diabetes lower blood sugar glucose levels, prevent complications, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs. The Stanford Diabetes Self-Management program is an evidence-based approach designed to improve diabetes self-management practices, and delivered by certified educators.

While it is important for people with diabetes to develop and engage in self-management practices, self-management can also involve family members, friends, or other caregivers.

These individuals can offer emotional support, model healthy behaviors, participate in exercise activities, help monitor blood sugar glucose levels, administer insulin or other medications, and open communication around effective self-management practices.

Enhanced social support from family and friends can help build self-efficacy for diabetes self-management. Self-efficacy, related to diabetes self-management, is an individual's belief in their ability to successfully manage their own health needs.

Self-efficacy is important for effective diabetes self-management. It is important that patients understand the benefit of diabetes self-management activities. Programs can encourage healthcare providers to speak openly with patients about self-management and refer patients to self-management programs.

Patients with diabetes should be encouraged to ask questions and be reminded that these activities can help them to achieve successful disease management. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Rural America Website An overview of the benefits of diabetes self-management programs.

Describes different types of diabetes self-management education and support programs available to communities. Organization s : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Website Provides links to resources and tools to help communities develop, promote, implement and sustain diabetes self-management education and support DSMES programs.

The importance of regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Studies have reported that strict metabolic control can delay or prevent the progression of complications associated with diabetes[ 13 , 14 ].

Some of the Indian studies revealed very poor adherence to treatment regimens due to poor attitude towards the disease and poor health literacy among the general public[ 15 , 16 ].

The introduction of home blood glucose monitors and widespread use of glycosylated hemoglobin as an indicator of metabolic control has contributed to self-care in diabetes and thus has shifted more responsibility to the patient[ 17 , 18 ]. Self-care in diabetes has been defined as an evolutionary process of development of knowledge or awareness by learning to survive with the complex nature of the diabetes in a social context[ 20 , 21 ].

There are seven essential self-care behaviors in people with diabetes which predict good outcomes. These are healthy eating, being physically active, monitoring of blood sugar, compliant with medications, good problem-solving skills, healthy coping skills and risk-reduction behaviors[ 26 ].

These proposed measures can be useful for both clinicians and educators treating individual patients and for researchers evaluating new approaches to care.

Self-report is by far the most practical and cost-effective approach to self-care assessment and yet is often seen as undependable. Diabetes self-care activities are behaviors undertaken by people with or at risk of diabetes in order to successfully manage the disease on their own[ 26 ].

All these seven behaviors have been found to be positively correlated with good glycemic control, reduction of complications and improvement in quality of life[ 27 — 31 ]. In addition, it was observed that self-care encompasses not only performing these activities but also the interrelationships between them[ 32 ].

Diabetes self-care requires the patient to make many dietary and lifestyle modifications supplemented with the supportive role of healthcare staff for maintaining a higher level of self-confidence leading to a successful behavior change[ 33 ].

Though genetics play an important role in the development of diabetes, monozygotic twin studies have certainly shown the importance of environmental influences[ 34 ]. Individuals with diabetes have been shown to make a dramatic impact on the progression and development of their disease by participating in their own care[ 13 ].

This participation can succeed only if those with diabetes and their health care providers are informed about taking effective care for the disease. It is expected that those with the greatest knowledge will have a better understanding of the disease and have a better impact on the progression of the disease and complications.

The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists emphasizes the importance of patients becoming active and knowledgeable participants in their care[ 35 ]. Likewise, WHO has also recognized the importance of patients learning to manage their diabetes[ 36 ].

The American Diabetes Association had reviewed the standards of diabetes self management education and found that there was a four-fold increase in diabetic complications for those individuals with diabetes who had not received formal education concerning self-care practices[ 37 ].

A meta-analysis of self-management education for adults with type-2 diabetes revealed improvement in glycemic control at immediate follow-up. However, the observed benefit declined one to three months after the intervention ceased, suggesting that continuing education is necessary[ 38 ].

A review of diabetes self-management education revealed that education is successful in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels[ 39 ]. Diabetes education is important but it must be transferred to action or self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.

Self-care activities refer to behaviors such as following a diet plan, avoiding high fat foods, increased exercise, self-glucose monitoring, and foot care[ 40 ].

Changes in self-care activities should also be evaluated for progress toward behavioral change[ 41 ]. Self-monitoring of glycemic control is a cornerstone of diabetes care that can ensure patient participation in achieving and maintaining specific glycemic targets.

The most important objective of monitoring is the assessment of overall glycemic control and initiation of appropriate steps in a timely manner to achieve optimum control. Self-monitoring provides information about current glycemic status, allowing for assessment of therapy and guiding adjustments in diet, exercise and medication in order to achieve optimal glycemic control.

Irrespective of weight loss, engaging in regular physical activity has been found to be associated with improved health outcomes among diabetics[ 42 — 45 ].

The National Institutes of Health[ 46 ] and the American College of Sports Medicine[ 47 ] recommend that all adults, including those with diabetes, should engage in regular physical activity. Treatment adherence in diabetes is an area of interest and concern to health professionals and clinical researchers even though a great deal of prior research has been done in the area.

In diabetes, patients are expected to follow a complex set of behavioral actions to care for their diabetes on a daily basis. These actions involve engaging in positive lifestyle behaviors, including following a meal plan and engaging in appropriate physical activity; taking medications insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent when indicated; monitoring blood glucose levels; responding to and self-treating diabetes- related symptoms; following foot-care guidelines; and seeking individually appropriate medical care for diabetes or other health-related problems[ 48 ].

The majority of patients with diabetes can significantly reduce the chances of developing long-term complications by improving self-care activities.

In the process of delivering adequate support healthcare providers should not blame the patients even when their compliance is poor[ 49 ]. One of the realities about type-2 diabetes is that only being compliant to self-care activities will not lead to good metabolic control.

Research work across the globe has documented that metabolic control is a combination of many variables, not just patient compliance[ 51 , 52 ].

In an American trial, it was found that participants were more likely to make changes when each change was implemented individually. Success, therefore, may vary depending on how the changes are implemented, simultaneously or individually[ 53 ]. Some of the researchers have even suggested that health professionals should tailor their patient self-care support based on the degree of personal responsibility the patient is willing to assume towards their diabetes self-care management[ 54 ].

The role of healthcare providers in care of diabetic patients has been well recognized. Socio-demographic and cultural barriers such as poor access to drugs, high cost, patient satisfaction with their medical care, patient provider relationship, degree of symptoms, unequal distribution of health providers between urban and rural areas have restricted self-care activities in developing countries[ 39 , 55 — 58 ].

Another study stressed on both patient factors adherence, attitude, beliefs, knowledge about diabetes, culture and language capabilities, health literacy, financial resources, co-morbidities and social support and clinician related factors attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes, effective communication [ 60 ].

Because diabetes self-care activities can have a dramatic impact on lowering glycosylated hemoglobin levels, healthcare providers and educators should evaluate perceived patient barriers to self-care behaviors and make recommendations with these in mind.

Unfortunately, though patients often look to healthcare providers for guidance, many healthcare providers are not discussing self-care activities with patients[ 61 ]. Some patients may experience difficulty in understanding and following the basics of diabetes self-care activities. When adhering to self-care activities patients are sometimes expected to make what would in many cases be a medical decision and many patients are not comfortable or able to make such complex assessments.

It is critical that health care providers actively involve their patients in developing self-care regimens for each individual patient. This regimen should be the best possible combination for every individual patient plus it should sound realistic to the patient so that he or she can follow it[ 62 ].

Also, the need of regular follow-up can never be underestimated in a chronic illness like diabetes and therefore be looked upon as an integral component of its long term management.

A clinician should be able to recognize patients who are prone for non-compliance and thus give special attention to them. On a grass-root level, countries need good diabetes self-management education programs at the primary care level with emphasis on motivating good self-care behaviors especially lifestyle modification.

Furthermore, these programs should not happen just once, but periodic reinforcement is necessary to achieve change in behavior and sustain the same for long-term. While organizing these education programs adequate social support systems such as support groups, should be arranged. As most of the reported studies are from developed countries so there is an immense need for extensive research in rural areas of developing nations.

Concurrently, field research should be promoted in developing countries about perceptions of patients on the effectiveness of their self-care management so that resources for diabetes mellitus can be used efficiently.

To prevent diabetes related morbidity and mortality, there is an immense need of dedicated self-care behaviors in multiple domains, including food choices, physical activity, proper medications intake and blood glucose monitoring from the patients.

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Diabetes Res Clin Pract , 28 2 — What are some of the ways that diabetes may develop? Read on to learn more about the different types of diabetes and their potential causes. My podcast changed me Can 'biological race' explain disparities in health?

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Medical News Today. Health Conditions Health Products Discover Tools Connect. How to manage diabetes. Medically reviewed by Maria Prelipcean, M. Self-monitoring Healthy weight Nutrition Exercise Stop smoking Take medication regularly Takeaway While there is no cure for diabetes, with treatment and self-management strategies, a person can live a long and healthy life.

Share on Pinterest People can self-monitor their diabetes with a blood glucose meter. Maintain a healthy weight. Get good nutrition. Exercise regularly. Share on Pinterest Regular exercise may help control blood sugar levels.

Stop smoking. Take medication regularly. Share on Pinterest A person should take their diabetes medication as prescribed to prevent further complications. How we reviewed this article: Sources. Medical News Today has strict sourcing guidelines and draws only from peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical journals and associations.

We avoid using tertiary references. We link primary sources — including studies, scientific references, and statistics — within each article and also list them in the resources section at the bottom of our articles.

You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy. Share this article. Latest news Ovarian tissue freezing may help delay, and even prevent menopause.

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Mayo Clinic offers appointments in Arizona, Florida Self-care techniques for better diabetes control Sdlf-care and at Mayo Clinic Health System locations. Diabetes techjiques takes awareness. Know what Self-care techniques for better diabetes control your ciabetes sugar level Creatine and anaerobic performance and diabetees — and how to control these day-to-day factors. When you have diabetes, it's important to keep your blood sugar levels within the range recommended by your healthcare professional. But many things can make your blood sugar levels change, sometimes quickly. Find out some of the factors that can affect blood sugar. Then learn what you can do to manage them. Chronic Bettfr in Rural America This topic guide offers Sports psychology mindset latest news, Fat metabolism enzymes, resources, Se,f-care funding related to diabetes, as well as diabettes comprehensive overview of related issues. Diabetes self-management refers to the activities and behaviors an individual undertakes to control and treat their condition. People with diabetes must monitor their health regularly. Diabetes self-management typically occurs in the home and includes:. People with diabetes can learn self-management skills through diabetes self-management education and support DSMES programs.

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