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Chitosan weight loss

Chitosan weight loss

Chitosan weight loss was By Weigut McGrane, MS, RD. Studies are conflicting about the effectiveness of Chitosan with weight loss in humans. You should talk with a healthcare provider about using chitosan if you're pregnant or breastfeeding.

Chitosan weight loss -

This article aims to determine whether chitosan, a popular, over-the-counter, weight loss supplement, is an effective treatment for overweight and obesity. It is designed as a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

The data sources include the electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, Biosis, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CCTR ; the specialized websites Controlled Trials, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements IBIDS , System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe SIGLE , Reuter's Health Service, Natural Alternatives International and Pharmanutrients; and bibliographies of relevant journal articles.

Subjects were also instructed to visit the study centre every 15 days to receive new medication containers and to assess medication compliance from the subject diary.

Dosage compliance was assessed counting the unused quantity of medication from returned bottles. Subjects were also advised to maintain their normal routine diet and to record the type and amount of food consumed for periods of 5 days between days 1—5, days 41—45 and days 86—90 in the food diary provided, to calculate and analyse the daily caloric value.

At each study visit except randomisation visit, demographic data, anthropometric determinations includes upper abdominal circumference, hip circumference, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio , body composition BMI, body fat, visceral fat, muscle mass , HbA1c, lipid parameters triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL , and biochemistry data urea, serum creatinine, SGPT, SGOT were evaluated to determine safety and efficacy of KiOnutrime-CsG®.

Physical examinations and vital signs radial pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature were carried out at all visits. Body weight and body composition parameters were measured using calibrated Body Fat Monitor Tanita Corporation, Japan; Model BC , which assesses body composition indirectly by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

Anthropometric determinations were made using non-stretch measuring tape to the nearest 0. Fasting blood was collected onsite and then transferred within 30 min to central pathology laboratory Dr Lal Pathlabs at Ahmedabad and Bangalore, India.

Serum samples were separated rpm, 15 min, 4 °C , immediately frozen and stored at ° C until analysed. All analyses were completed within 12 h of blood collection and all methods were validated by three freeze-thaw cycles.

Study participants also completed a SF Short Form 36 health-related quality of life QoL questionnaire [ 27 , 28 ] at each visit except the randomisation visit.

The questionnaire consisted of eight multi-item dimensions. They were physical functioning PF , limitations due to physical problems Role-Physical , vitality VT , bodily pain BP , social functioning SF , limitations due to emotional problems Role-Emotional , mental health MH , and general health GH.

The scores from these dimensions were further grouped into physical and mental components expressed as Physical Component Summary PCS and Mental Component Summary MCS scores.

The PCS score reflected physical morbidity and adaptation to disease, whereas the MCS score referred to mental morbidity and adaptation. This was assessed by an independent dietician. The average calorie intake for the period of day 1—5, day 41—45 and day 86—90 was calculated for both the groups.

The primary efficacy end point was reduction in body weight in kilograms on day 45 and day 90 compared to baseline. Secondary outcome measures include mean changes in body composition data BMI, body fat, visceral fat, muscle mass , anthropometric values change in upper abdominal circumference, hip circumference, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio , lipid profile and HbA1c levels.

Safety was evaluated by clinically and physically observing and reporting adverse events AE and assessing changes in vital signs, and biochemistry parameters.

Change in SF QoL scale from baseline was also assessed to evaluate safety and efficacy of KiOnutrime-CsG® capsules. The sample size of this study was based on the primary objective of reduction in the body weight after 90 days treatment with chitosan. All the statistical analyses were carried out using SAS v9.

The distribution of the variables was investigated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To evaluate the effect of chitosan capsules on the investigated variables, P value for between groups comparison was calculated using unpaired t- test or Mann Whitney test based on the distribution of data.

In case of within group comparison, data were analysed using paired t -test or Wilcoxon test depending upon the distribution of data. P values of less than 0. Of the subjects screened, a total of 96 subjects were enrolled in the study.

Of these, 64 subjects were randomly assigned to the chitosan group and 32 to the placebo group. Five subjects from chitosan group and one from placebo group were lost to follow-up; while three subjects from chitosan group and one from placebo group withdrew their consent during the course of the study.

A total of 86 subjects completed the study. Figure 1 describes the disposition of the study subjects. There was no significant difference between the baseline demographics of study participants in each treatment group Table 1. A total of 15 subjects in chitosan group and 6 subjects in placebo group had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia or their combination.

Reduction in the mean body weight over a period of 45 and 90 days intervention for chitosan and placebo group was assessed. In chitosan group, body weight was reduced from While in placebo group the body weight was While in the placebo group, the percentage of subjects who reduced body weight in the same range was Only about 6.

In chitosan group, the mean change in body weight was Table 2 shows the comparison between body weights in both the groups. Table 3 describes the absolute values of each study parameters at baseline, at day 45 and day 90 and Table 4 describes the change in each parameter at day 45 and day 90 from baseline.

Mean change in the reduction of BMI from baseline was significantly higher in chitosan group on day 45 and day 90 as compared to subjects receiving placebo Table 4. In chitosan group the mean changes in BMI at day 45 were found to be in the range of After 90 days of administration, there was a further reduction in BMI in chitosan group which was in the range of However, there was no statistical difference between both treatments at any time points.

Mean changes in body fat reduction from baseline in chitosan group as compared to placebo group at day 45 This mean change in body fat reduction was in the range of This further decreased to 9.

In placebo group, however, visceral fat remained unchanged at day 45 Again, when compared between treatments, the values were statistically non-significant. We found that muscle mass decreased in chitosan group This can also be observed by reduction of muscle mass in the range of The reduction in body weight caused a comparable decrease in anthropometric measurement as well.

On the contrary, there was no statistical significant reduction in upper abdominal circumference, hip circumference and waist circumference in patients treated with placebo on day 45 and day Mean change in reduction from baseline in upper abdominal circumference There was no significant change in waist to hip ratio in both treatment groups at day 45 and day 90 HbA1c level at baseline was compared with post-administration measurements at day 45 and day 90 to assess the efficacy of chitosancapsules.

In this study, HbA1c level was significantly decreased at day 45 5. After 90 day treatment with chitosan, HbA1c level significantly decreased in those17 subjects mean: 6. This shows that chitosan was effective in reducing HbA1c levels in subjects who were having higher glycaemic value initially, while subjects with normal glycaemic levels were unaffected.

Analysis of daily food intake for the period of 15 days day 1—5, day 41—45 and day 86—90 for calorie intake showed there was no significant change, in either group, during this study. The mean caloric intake in chitosan group for day 1—5 was kcal, for day 41—45 was kcal and for day 86—90 was kcal.

While the same for placebo group was kcal, kcal and kcal, respectively. Lipid levels in both treatment groups are described in Table 5. Although LDL levels increased in chitosan group at day 45 and in placebo group at day 90, in general the results were clinically non-significant as this increase in LDL can be attributed to only two of the subjects; one in chitosan group and one in placebo group who showed transient increase in their LDL levels.

The SF analysis shows that the mean PCS score and mean MCS score obtained in chitosan group at day 0 were The mean PCS score and mean MCS score obtained in placebo group at day 0 were There were a total of 10 adverse events AEs recorded during the study period: four in placebo group and six in chitosan group.

In chitosan group reported AEs were common cold, hypertriglyceridemia, body ache, constipation 2 subjects and hypertension, while in placebo group, the reported AEs were mild headache 2 subjects , hypertriglyceridemia and fracture.

All adverse events were mild in nature and unrelated to the study treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in laboratory parameters SGOT, SGPT, serum creatinine and urea from baseline to day 90 in both chitosan and placebo groups.

No dropout was observed due to AEs, which states that overall the study treatment was safe and well tolerated by all study subjects. The observed weight loss in chitosan group is in contrast to only 0. Although some studies demonstrated that reduction in body weight by administration of chitosan can be achieved in individuals given a hypocaloric or standardized diet [ 14 , 29 ], other studies show efficacy of chitosan for persons without diet restrictions [ 10 , 23 , 30 , 31 ].

The results of our study confirm that indeed significant weight loss can be achieved in subjects adhering to a non-restrictive diet [ 10 , 23 , 30 , 31 ]. Reasons for the difference in results in our study with other reported studies could be difference in diets, dosage and timing of chitosan administration or protocol variability such as life style recommendations.

One factor which is important to consider is the timing of chitosan ingestion before meals. It is typically recommended that chitosan supplements be ingested approximately 15 min to 1 h prior to a meal in order to allow sufficient time for chitosan to dissolve in the stomach acid[ 18 ].

In our study, the dosage was one capsule 15 min before breakfast and two capsules each 15 min before lunch and dinner. This allowed sufficient time for it to dissolve properly and efficiently bind the fats present in the meal, which resulted in observed weight loss.

Body weight gain and increase in BMI are the key clinical features of obesity. BMI correlates fairly well with total body fat on a population basis [ 32 ]. The overweight BMI In this study we found that after 90 day administration with chitosan, there was It is well known that weight reduction in subjects with obesity has a marked effect on the regulation of lipolysis [ 33 ] and weight loss shows good correlations with several of the circumferences [ 34 ] that were measured in present study.

Also, in one of the gastric bypass study conducted by Sjostrom and colleagues [ 35 ], it was found that the profound weight loss experienced by the subjects resulted from a global decrease in body fat rather than localised loss.

Also, hypocholesterolemic properties of chitosan decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular dysfunctions [ 36 ]. Chitosan, by the virtue of its property to bind fat and triglycerides, may also have caused the disturbances in regulation of lipolysis resulting in lowering of body fat and visceral fat observed in our study.

Reduction of muscle mass by chitosan was observed in this study which is reduced in an average of 0. Although there is a statistically significant reduction, this has not produced any clinically relevant adverse effects over a period of 90 days.

It is already reported that chitosan can regulate lipids with benefit on anthropometric parameters [ 37 ]. Also, in one of the study conducted over a period of five years, it was confirmed that weight gain and weight loss are associated with changes in the anthropometric measurements and waist to hip ratio WHR in both genders [ 38 ].

The reduction in body composition and anthropometric parameters observed in our study can be attributed to general reduction in body weightpossibly due to reduction in fat absorption [ 39 ] by chitosan. Practically no significant change was observed in serum triglyceride, LDL and VLDL throughout the test period while HDL was slightly increased in chitosan group non-significant.

It is well known that Low-density lipoproteins LDL are considered as important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases CVD , while highdensity lipoproteins HDL are well recognized for their putative role in reverse cholesterol transport [ 40 ]. Since HDL-cholesterol is more metabolisable into bile acid than LDL-cholesterol [ 41 ], it is presumed that a deficiency of bile acid in the body due to binding with chitosan would accelerate the conversion of cholesterol to bile acid, which may result in an increase of HDL-cholesterol.

Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder, which is often associated with many other significant diseases such as diabetes, inflammation, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases; there is a consistent graded relationship between increased BMI and prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM and insulin resistance [ 43 ].

It is established that inflammation, diabetes and obesity are interrelated and a person with diabetes are predisposed to obesity and metabolic syndrome.

HbA1C reflects the long-term glycaemic level and is a marker for progression of diabetes. It has been reported that chitosan significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels in both animal and in vitro models [ 44 ] as well as in humans [ 45 ].

This may the reason for the observed decrease in HbA1c levels in our study. Interestingly, this reduction was mainly observed in subjects who were initially having high HbA1C levels, while subjects with normal HbA1C levels at baseline were unaffected by chitosan.

However, more clinical studies are required to confirm this effect of chitosan in large diabetic population. The results of SF QoL score showed that there was significant improvement in mean PCS score in chitosan group which reflects improvement in physical morbidity and adaptation to obesity.

However, mean MCS score failed to improve with the treatment. This may be due to failure to evaluate the impact that excess weight would have on obesity-specific aspects of QoL score during the baseline evaluations [ 46 ]. This might explain why no effect of decrease in BMI was detected on MCS despite it being recognised that people who are overweight or obese are more likely to suffer from discrimination and depression [ 47 ].

In summary, we conclude that KiOnutrime-CsG® capsule, containing mg of chitosan from fungal origin, was able to reduce the mean body weight up to 3 kg during the days study period.

KiOnutrime-CsG® capsulewas also found to be safe and well tolerated by all study participants. Sengupta K, Mishra AT, Rao MK, Sarma KV, Krishnaraju AV, Trimurtulu G. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management in obese subjects: a randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical study.

Lipids Health Dis. Google Scholar. Nammi S, Koka S, Chinnala KM, Boini KM. Obesity: an overview on its current perspectives and treatment options.

Nutr J. Article Google Scholar. Taylor RW, Keil D, Gold EJ, Williams SM, Goulding A. Body mass index, waist girth, and waist-to-hip ratio as indexes of total and regional adiposity in women: evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves.

Am J Clin Nutr. CAS Google Scholar. pdf ]. Daniels S. Pharmacological treatment of obesity in paediatric patients. Paediatr Drugs. Article CAS Google Scholar. Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, Gidding SS, Hayman LL, Kumanyika S, et al.

Overweight in children and adolescents: pathophysiology, consequences, prevention, and treatment. Brenot F, Herve P, Petitpretz P, Parent F, Duroux P, Simonneau G. Primary pulmonary hypertension and fenfluramine use. Br Heart J. Rizzo M, Perez-Martinez P, Nikolic D, Montalto G, Lopez-Miranda J. Emerging approaches for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. Astrup A. Dietary composition, substrate balances and body fat in subjects with a predisposition to obesity. To make chitosan products, the shells of crustaceans, mainly shrimp and crabs, are grouped by size and species, then cleaned, dried and ground into small pieces.

Then the pieces go through a purification method, which differs for each treatment or product. A review published in Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews analyzed 15 trials including a total of 1, participants.

Researchers found that chitosan preparations resulted in significantly greater weight loss compared to placebo. Plus, treatment groups experienced a decrease in total cholesterol and blood pressure.

That said, researchers indicate that, overall, the trials in this review were of poor quality, and more evidence is needed to prove that chitosan helps weight loss.

Research shows that chitosan-based compounds may be beneficial for wound healing. They have exhibited antimicrobial activity, fighting gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

For this reason, chitosan topicals, such as gels and sprays, are used in wound dressing to reduce swelling and fight infections.

Recent investigations suggest that chitosan and its derivatives exhibit anti-tumor activity. It has been shown, in both in vitro and in vivo models, to elevate the production of T-lymphocytes, or white blood cells. Researchers also found that chitooligosaccharides, which are degraded products of chitosan, have proved to repress tumor growth in mice with lung cancer.

It may cause adverse side effects in some people, possibly leading to digestive complaints like upset stomach, gas and constipation. Chitosan may also reduce the absorption of essential nutrients , including vitamins A, D, E and K and calcium, which may contribute to nutrient deficiencies.

People who are allergic to shellfish may not tolerate chitosan supplements. If you experience allergy symptoms, like rash, throat irritation and stomach pains, discontinue use immediately. Chitosan should not be taken by people who are on blood thinners, such as warfarin, as it may increase the blood thinning effects.

When buying a supplement or topical, choose from a reputable, trustworthy brand that has clear directions and indicates the dosage.

Nutrition Journal volume 15Article number: Nutrient timing for athletes Cite this article. Loes details. Chitosan is a dietary Cbitosan which acts by reducing fat absorption wegiht Brain health and self-care used as a means for controlling weight. Weight loss clinical trial outcomes, however, have contradictory results regarding its efficacy. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a chitosan from fungal origin in treatment of excess weight in the absence of dietary restrictions.

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5 Things I Would Never Do as a Weight Loss Doctor #5things #shorts Thank Caffeine and learning enhancement for visiting Caffeine and learning enhancement. You are wekght a browser version eeight limited support for Chltosan. To Chitosan weight loss the best experience, Anti-viral remedies recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Background : Overweight and obesity is a prevalent and costly threat to public health. Compelling evidence links overweight and obesity with serious disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Chitosan weight loss

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3 thoughts on “Chitosan weight loss

  1. Es ist schade, dass ich mich jetzt nicht aussprechen kann - ich beeile mich auf die Arbeit. Ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich die Meinung aussprechen.

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