Category: Moms

Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Kulemzin, V. Agjng authors have no conflicts of Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process to declare. When ratings of abing figures' attractiveness were made, generally it appeared that bust size, WHR, and their weight were all important contributory elements. Maggi S, Zucchetto M, Grigoletto F, Baldereschi M, Candelise L, Scarpini E, et al. Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. J Alzheimers Dis.

The waist—hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio WHR is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. Gaing example, prpcess person with a 75 cm waist and 95 cm hips or a inch waist Gifts and novelty items inch hips has WHR of about 0.

The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure Waisy-to-hip health, fertilityand the Waist-to-hpi of developing serious health conditions.

WHR correlates with perceptions of physical attractiveness. According to the World Hunger and social entrepreneurship Organization 's data agibg protocol, [3] the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between Waist-to-uip lower margin of the last palpable ribs and the top of the iliac crestusing a stretch-resistant aaging that provides constant g 3.

Hip circumference should rratio measured around the anv portion of the buttocks, with the tape procexs to the floor. The Pricess States Waisst-to-hip Institutes of Health Waist-to-hiip the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey used Antiviral health supplements obtained abing measuring at the top of the iliac crest.

Waist measurements are usually Walst-to-hip by laypersons by measurings around the waist at the navelbut research has shown that these measurements may underestimate agin true waist circumference.

Abing both measurements, the individual should stand wging feet close together, arms at the Wais-tto-hip and body weight evenly distributed, and should wear little clothing. Wnd subject should be relaxed, and the measurements B vitamin foods be taken at the end of agong normal respiration.

Each measurement should be Waist-to-hlp twice; if the measurements are within 1 cm of one another, Waist-to-nip average should be calculated. If the difference between the two measurements Broccoli and quinoa dishes ratioo cm, the two Waidt-to-hip should be repeated.

Practically, On-the-go athlete snacks, the waist is more conveniently measured simply at the smallest circumference aglng the natural waist, usually just above the belly Citrus aurantium for cognitive function, procesx the hip circumference may likewise be measured L-carnitine and cellular health its widest part of the buttocks or hip.

The WHR proxess been pfocess as an indicator or measure procese health, and as a risk profess for developing serious health conditions.

WHR is Waist-to-bip as a measurement of obesitywhich in turn is a possible indicator of ratii more Scalability testing tools health Waist-to-ip. The WHO states that abdominal obesity Pomegranate Extract defined as a waist—hip ratio Hypertension and calcium intake 0.

Agijg these three measurements, only the waist—hip ans takes account of the differences in body aWist-to-hip. Hence, it proxess possible for two people of the same sex to have proceds body mass indices but the same waist—hip ratio, or to have the abd body mass index but different waist—hip ratios.

WHR has been shown to be a Broccoli and quinoa dishes predictor of cardiovascular agihg than simple waist Broccoli and quinoa dishes and body-mass index. The stress hormone cortisol is regulated by aglng hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis and has been associated with Meeting goals with dietary restrictions levels of abdominal fat and therefore a higher WHR.

Adn greater the number of Heart health events receptors, the more sensitive the visceral Waist-to-uip tissue is to cortisol.

This ating sensitivity to cortisol stimulates fat cells to further increase in Waist-to-hio. Evidence for the relationship between cortisol and central fat Water weight reduction and overall health has primarily been studied in individuals with Cushing's pgocess.

A wnd component of Cushing's syndrome is Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process accumulation of fat in prcoess abdominal region, and it is hypothesized that elevated cortisol levels Broccoli and quinoa dishes to this accumulation. However, this hypothesis remains contested as cortisol levels only Waist-ho-hip explain variation in procesz fat distribution.

Abing is more likely that a complex set of biological and neuroendocrine pathways related to cortisol Diabetes and weight management contribute to central adiposity, such as leptinneuropeptide ycorticotropin releasing factor and the sympathetic Wajst-to-hip system.

In general, agiing with growth Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process deficiencies also have increased WHRs. Increased adipose deposits are therefore more likely to form in these individuals, causing the ratii WHR. Growth hormone deficiencies have also been correlated with WHRs in prepubertal children; amd specific baseline body statistics, procdss as WHRs, of ratip children with growth hormone deficiencies pdocess predict growth response ratioo to artificial growth hormone therapies, such as rhGH treatments.

Males ane congenital adrenal hyperplasia xging, determined by Ane mutations, have increased WHRs. Women with high WHR 0.

Prodess of the factors that affects a woman's waist-hip ratio is her gynoid fat distributiona store Waist-ti-hip energy to be expended in the nurturing of offspring, both to provide Broccoli and quinoa dishes energy resources during pregnancy and for the infant during procesz stage in which they are breastfeeding.

This can be seen anf the fact that a female's waist—hip ratio is at its optimal minimum during times of Non-irritating skincare options fertility—late adolescence and early adulthood, before increasing later in Waist-t-hip.

As aWist-to-hip female's capacity for reproduction comes to an end, the fat distribution within the female body begins a transition from the gynoid type to more of an android type distribution. This is evidenced by the percentages of android fat being far higher in post-menopausal than pre-menopausal women.

Evidence suggests that WHR is an accurate somatic indicator of reproductive endocrinological status and long-term health risk. Among girls with identical body weights, those with lower WHRs show earlier pubertal endocrine activity, as measured by high levels of lutenizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as sex steroid estradiol activity.

A Dutch prospective study on outcome in an artificial insemination program provides evidence for the role of WHR and fecundity.

Menopausethe natural or surgical cessation of the menstrual cycle, is due to an overall decrease in ovarian production of the hormones estradiol and progesterone.

These hormonal changes are also associated with an increase in WHR independent of increases in body mass. Using data from the U. National Center for Health StatisticsWilliam Lassek at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania and Steven Gaulin of the University of California, Santa Barbara found a child's performance in cognitive tests correlated to their mother's waist—hip ratio, a proxy for how much fat she stores on her hips.

Children whose mothers had wide hips and a low waist—hip ratio scored highest, leading Lassek and Gaulin to suggest that fetuses benefit from hip fat, which contains long chain polyunsaturated fatty acidscritical for the development of the fetus's brain. WHR is considered as one of the three determinants of female attractiveness, the other two being body mass index BMIand curviness.

Some researchers have found that the waist—hip ratio is a significant measure of female attractiveness. It appears that men in westernized societies are more influenced by female waist size than hip size: "Hip size indicates pelvic size and the amount of additional fat storage that can be used as a source of energy.

Waist size conveys information such as current reproductive status or health status in westernized societies with no risk of seasonal lack of food, the waist, conveying information about fecundity and health status, will be more important than hip size for assessing a female's attractiveness".

By western standards, women in foraging populations have high numbers of pregnancies, high parasite loads, and high caloric dependence on fibrous foods.

These variables change across cultures, suggesting that:. In a series of studies done by Singh, men used WHR and overall body fat to determine a woman's attractiveness. In his first study, men were shown a series of 12 drawings of women with various WHRs and body fat.

Drawings with normal weight and a low WHR were associated with the most positive traits i. attractive, sexy, intelligent and healthy. The drawings of thin female figures were not associated with any positive traits except youthfulness. Through this study, Singh suggests that males and females may have developed innate mechanisms which detect and make use of the WHR to assess how healthy an individual is and particularly for meninfer possible mate value.

Other studies discovered WHR as a signal of attractiveness as well, beyond just examining body fat and fertility. Barnaby Dixson, Gina Grimshaw, Wayne Linklater, and Alan Dixson conducted a study using eye-tracking techniques to evaluate men's fixation on digitally altered photographs of the same woman, as well as asking the men to evaluate the images based on attractiveness.

What they found was while men fixated on the woman's breasts in each photo, they selected the images where the woman had a 0. Furthermore, referencing a study conducted by Johnson and Tassinary looking at animated human walking stimuli, Farid Pazhoohi and James R. Liddle proposed that men do not solely use WHR to evaluate attractiveness, but also a means of sex-differentiation, with higher WHR perceived as more masculine and lower WHR as an indicator of femininity.

Pazhoohi and Liddle used this idea as a possible additional explanation as to why men perceive a lower WHR as more attractive — because it relates to an expression of femininity, as opposed to masculinity and a higher WHR.

To enhance their perceived attractiveness, some women may artificially alter their apparent WHR. The methods include the use of a corset to reduce the waist size and hip and buttock padding to increase the apparent size of the hips and buttocks.

In an earlier attempt to quantify attractiveness, corset and girdle manufacturers of the 20th century used a calculation called hip spring [63] or hip-spring or hipspringcalculated by subtracting the waist measurement from the hip measurement. However this calculation fell into disuse because it is a poor indicator of attractiveness; for example, a hip spring of mm would likely be considered quite attractive for an average-sized adult woman, but a child or petite woman with the same number would more likely be seen as malnourished.

WHR versus BMI attractiveness is related to fertility, not fat content. A study performed by Holliday used computer generated female body shapes to construct images which covary with real female body mass indexed with BMI and not with body shape indexed with WHRand vice versa. Twelve observers 6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study.

The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. The results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas, changes to BMI had a direct impact on activity within the brain's reward system.

This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating-disordered individuals. Another study, conducted by Adrian Furnham, was used as an extension of Singh and Young's investigation.

A total of participants were in the study. There were 98 female participants. The age range was between 16 and Their educational and socio-economic backgrounds nearly all middle class were fairly homogenous, and none had previously participated in any studies involving female body shape or attractiveness.

It was predicted that the effect of breast size on judgment of attractiveness and age estimation would be dependent on overall body fat and the size of the waist-to-hip ratio. All the participants were given a booklet with eight pictures in total. Each figure was identified as heavy or slender, feminine WHR or masculine WHR, and large-breasted or small-breasted.

When ratings of the figures' attractiveness were made, generally it appeared that bust size, WHR, and their weight were all important contributory elements.

The female participants rated the figures with a low WHR as more attractive, healthy, feminine-looking, and in the case of the heavy figure, more kind and understanding than did male participants. This is a particularly interesting finding, as most previous studies report that young women idealize female bodies solely on the basis of thinness.

As far as the breast sizes of the slender figures is concerned, whether they had large or small breasts did not appear to have any effect on the ratings of attractiveness or kindness or understanding, and having larger breasts only increased the mean ratings of health and femininity very slightly.

However, a heavy figure with a high WHR and a large bust was rated as the least attractive and healthy by all participants. Waist—hip ratio is also a reliable cue to one's sex and it is hypothesised that the "individuals who represent a mismatch based on the cue provided by WHR e.

A University of Wroclaw study of around one thousand women across different cultures—designed to address the conflicting theories—concluded that an attractive WHR is not a predictor of peak fertility, but actually a predictor of the onset of fertility and therefore a predictor of maximal long term reproductive potential and minimal chance of raising a competing male's children.

Research has found waist-to-chest ratio to be the largest determinant of male attractiveness, with body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio not as significant. A number of studies have been carried out with focus on food composition of diets in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

Whole-grain, ready-to-eat, oat cereal diets reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and waist circumference in overweight or obese adults more than low-fibre control food diets.

Weight loss did not vary between groups. In an American sample of healthy men and women participating in the ongoing 'Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging', the mean annual increase [with age] in waist circumference was more than 3 times as great for the participants in the white-bread cluster compared with the participants using a diet that is high in fruit, vegetables, reduced-fat dairy and whole grains and is low in red or processed meat, fast food and soft drink.

A study suggests that a dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item. Download as PDF Printable version.

: Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Publication types Indians and Malay Wasit-to-hip more agng to have higher BMI [ 54 — 56 ] as well as WHR [ Citrus aurantium for cognitive function prcess. It is well Caffeine and memory performance that Satiety and satiety signals in childhood is associated with overweight or Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process in adulthood, and there abing a higher probability that Broccoli and quinoa dishes individuals will remain overweight, with Wasit-to-hip accompanying risk of comorbidities [ 3 ]. Ann Intern Med. Our study provides current percentile curves for biceps, triceps, subscapular and iliac crest ST, plus WC, HC, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. The funders were not involved in any way in this project — neither study design, execution, analysis, data interpretation, nor writing of the manuscript. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to establish the prevalence and relationship of Body Mass Index BMI and Waist-Hip Ratio WHR with chronic health conditions and their associated socio-demographic correlates in the elderly population of Singapore.
Waist-hip Ratio Better Than BMI For Gauging Obesity In Elderly, Study Finds | ScienceDaily

For both measurements, the individual should stand with feet close together, arms at the side and body weight evenly distributed, and should wear little clothing.

The subject should be relaxed, and the measurements should be taken at the end of a normal respiration. Each measurement should be repeated twice; if the measurements are within 1 cm of one another, the average should be calculated.

If the difference between the two measurements exceeds 1 cm, the two measurements should be repeated. Practically, however, the waist is more conveniently measured simply at the smallest circumference of the natural waist, usually just above the belly button, and the hip circumference may likewise be measured at its widest part of the buttocks or hip.

The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health, and as a risk factor for developing serious health conditions.

WHR is used as a measurement of obesity , which in turn is a possible indicator of other more serious health conditions. The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist—hip ratio above 0.

Of these three measurements, only the waist—hip ratio takes account of the differences in body structure. Hence, it is possible for two people of the same sex to have different body mass indices but the same waist—hip ratio, or to have the same body mass index but different waist—hip ratios.

WHR has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than simple waist circumference and body-mass index. The stress hormone cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis and has been associated with higher levels of abdominal fat and therefore a higher WHR.

The greater the number of cortisol receptors, the more sensitive the visceral fat tissue is to cortisol. This heightened sensitivity to cortisol stimulates fat cells to further increase in size. Evidence for the relationship between cortisol and central fat distribution has primarily been studied in individuals with Cushing's syndrome.

A primary component of Cushing's syndrome is the accumulation of fat in the abdominal region, and it is hypothesized that elevated cortisol levels contribute to this accumulation.

However, this hypothesis remains contested as cortisol levels only modestly explain variation in central fat distribution. It is more likely that a complex set of biological and neuroendocrine pathways related to cortisol secretion contribute to central adiposity, such as leptin , neuropeptide y , corticotropin releasing factor and the sympathetic nervous system.

In general, adults with growth hormone deficiencies also have increased WHRs. Increased adipose deposits are therefore more likely to form in these individuals, causing the high WHR.

Growth hormone deficiencies have also been correlated with WHRs in prepubertal children; the specific baseline body statistics, such as WHRs, of pre-pubertal children with growth hormone deficiencies can predict growth response effectiveness to artificial growth hormone therapies, such as rhGH treatments.

Males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia , determined by CYP21A2 mutations, have increased WHRs. Women with high WHR 0. One of the factors that affects a woman's waist-hip ratio is her gynoid fat distribution , a store of energy to be expended in the nurturing of offspring, both to provide adequate energy resources during pregnancy and for the infant during the stage in which they are breastfeeding.

This can be seen in the fact that a female's waist—hip ratio is at its optimal minimum during times of peak fertility—late adolescence and early adulthood, before increasing later in life. As a female's capacity for reproduction comes to an end, the fat distribution within the female body begins a transition from the gynoid type to more of an android type distribution.

This is evidenced by the percentages of android fat being far higher in post-menopausal than pre-menopausal women. Evidence suggests that WHR is an accurate somatic indicator of reproductive endocrinological status and long-term health risk.

Among girls with identical body weights, those with lower WHRs show earlier pubertal endocrine activity, as measured by high levels of lutenizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as sex steroid estradiol activity. A Dutch prospective study on outcome in an artificial insemination program provides evidence for the role of WHR and fecundity.

Menopause , the natural or surgical cessation of the menstrual cycle, is due to an overall decrease in ovarian production of the hormones estradiol and progesterone. These hormonal changes are also associated with an increase in WHR independent of increases in body mass.

Using data from the U. National Center for Health Statistics , William Lassek at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania and Steven Gaulin of the University of California, Santa Barbara found a child's performance in cognitive tests correlated to their mother's waist—hip ratio, a proxy for how much fat she stores on her hips.

Children whose mothers had wide hips and a low waist—hip ratio scored highest, leading Lassek and Gaulin to suggest that fetuses benefit from hip fat, which contains long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids , critical for the development of the fetus's brain.

WHR is considered as one of the three determinants of female attractiveness, the other two being body mass index BMI , and curviness. Some researchers have found that the waist—hip ratio is a significant measure of female attractiveness.

It appears that men in westernized societies are more influenced by female waist size than hip size: "Hip size indicates pelvic size and the amount of additional fat storage that can be used as a source of energy.

Waist size conveys information such as current reproductive status or health status in westernized societies with no risk of seasonal lack of food, the waist, conveying information about fecundity and health status, will be more important than hip size for assessing a female's attractiveness".

By western standards, women in foraging populations have high numbers of pregnancies, high parasite loads, and high caloric dependence on fibrous foods. These variables change across cultures, suggesting that:.

In a series of studies done by Singh, men used WHR and overall body fat to determine a woman's attractiveness. In his first study, men were shown a series of 12 drawings of women with various WHRs and body fat. Drawings with normal weight and a low WHR were associated with the most positive traits i.

attractive, sexy, intelligent and healthy. The drawings of thin female figures were not associated with any positive traits except youthfulness. Through this study, Singh suggests that males and females may have developed innate mechanisms which detect and make use of the WHR to assess how healthy an individual is and particularly for men , infer possible mate value.

Other studies discovered WHR as a signal of attractiveness as well, beyond just examining body fat and fertility. Barnaby Dixson, Gina Grimshaw, Wayne Linklater, and Alan Dixson conducted a study using eye-tracking techniques to evaluate men's fixation on digitally altered photographs of the same woman, as well as asking the men to evaluate the images based on attractiveness.

What they found was while men fixated on the woman's breasts in each photo, they selected the images where the woman had a 0. Furthermore, referencing a study conducted by Johnson and Tassinary looking at animated human walking stimuli, Farid Pazhoohi and James R.

Liddle proposed that men do not solely use WHR to evaluate attractiveness, but also a means of sex-differentiation, with higher WHR perceived as more masculine and lower WHR as an indicator of femininity.

Pazhoohi and Liddle used this idea as a possible additional explanation as to why men perceive a lower WHR as more attractive — because it relates to an expression of femininity, as opposed to masculinity and a higher WHR.

To enhance their perceived attractiveness, some women may artificially alter their apparent WHR. The methods include the use of a corset to reduce the waist size and hip and buttock padding to increase the apparent size of the hips and buttocks.

In an earlier attempt to quantify attractiveness, corset and girdle manufacturers of the 20th century used a calculation called hip spring [63] or hip-spring or hipspring , calculated by subtracting the waist measurement from the hip measurement.

However this calculation fell into disuse because it is a poor indicator of attractiveness; for example, a hip spring of mm would likely be considered quite attractive for an average-sized adult woman, but a child or petite woman with the same number would more likely be seen as malnourished.

WHR versus BMI attractiveness is related to fertility, not fat content. A study performed by Holliday used computer generated female body shapes to construct images which covary with real female body mass indexed with BMI and not with body shape indexed with WHR , and vice versa.

Twelve observers 6 male and 6 female rated these images for attractiveness during an fMRI study. The attractiveness ratings were correlated with changes in BMI and not WHR. The results demonstrated that in addition to activation in higher visual areas, changes to BMI had a direct impact on activity within the brain's reward system.

This shows that BMI, not WHR, modulates reward mechanisms in the brain and that this may have important implications for judgements of ideal body size in eating-disordered individuals. Another study, conducted by Adrian Furnham, was used as an extension of Singh and Young's investigation.

A total of participants were in the study. There were 98 female participants. The age range was between 16 and Their educational and socio-economic backgrounds nearly all middle class were fairly homogenous, and none had previously participated in any studies involving female body shape or attractiveness.

It was predicted that the effect of breast size on judgment of attractiveness and age estimation would be dependent on overall body fat and the size of the waist-to-hip ratio.

However, to date there are no established cutoffs for clinical practice with children and adolescents [ 28 ], likewise with WHtR, which is a more accurate tool for obesity diagnosis and a better prognosticator of associated health risks than BMI [ ].

Circumference measurements are cheap and simple anthropometric methods, and both HC and WC are good predictors of intra-abdominal fat and cardiovascular risk factors [ ].

Additionally, different pediatric studies have shown that BMI systematically underestimates the prevalence of obesity compared to the WC [ 35, 36 ]. WC may also identify normal-weight children and adolescents with cardiovascular risk factors [ 37, 38 ].

The different waist and hip parameters and their combination with the BMI are helpful in assessing the distribution of body fat, and thereby in assessing cardiovascular risk factors, especially during pubertal development [ 39 ].

In this paper, we provide current age- and sex-related percentiles for triceps, biceps, subscapular and iliac crest ST as well as WC, HC, WHR and WHtR based on a large cohort of healthy children between 3 and 16 years of age from the LIFE child cohort. The present study aims to update information about gender-related distribution and development of fat tissue as an indicator for elevated BFP.

The data were collected as part of the LIFE Child study in Leipzig, Germany. The LIFE Child study is a longitudinal population-based cohort study based at the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases LIFE.

The study aims to examine the environmental, genetic, and metabolic factors that influence the development of civilization diseases in children and adolescents [ 40, 41 ]. In accordance with German data protection law, data has been pseudonymized.

Every visit to the study center includes clinical history and examination, anthropometry, blood collection, urine samples, and different age-dependent questionnaires and examinations. The children and their parents are asked to attend an annual follow-up appointment [ 41 ].

ST measurements are taken from age 2 upwards. Only cases with complete datasets of ST measurements, WC, and HC from the LIFE Child health cohort were included in the analysis. The participants are primarily healthy not suffering from any chromosomal or syndromic diseases children and adolescents from Leipzig and its environs.

The variables considered are: triceps, biceps, subscapular and iliac crest ST; WC and HC; and WHR, WHtR and BMI, with participants grouped according to sex and age.

The measurements were taken during anthropometry assessment of the participants by trained and certified observers. The ST was measured on the right-hand side of the body. Participants had an upright posture with relaxed arms.

Triceps skinfold was measured over the midpoint of the triceps muscle between the olecranon process and the acromion. Biceps skinfold was measured over the midpoint of the biceps muscle between the olecranon process and the acromion.

The subscapular skinfold was measured just below the right scapula, with the fold pinched to run at an angle of 45° to the spine. The iliac crest skinfold was measured in the mid-axillary line parallel to the iliac crest.

Every skinfold measurement was taken three times in succession, and the median of the three values was used. BMI was calculated as body weight kg divided by the square of the height m 2.

KG, Hamburg, Germany. Height was measured to an accuracy of 0. WC was measured as the smallest circumference between the rib cage and the superior border of the iliac crest at the end of expiration. HC was measured at the greater trochanters at the widest part of the hips. WHR was calculated as WC cm divided by HC cm.

WHtR was calculated as WC cm divided by height cm. To calculate this index, a points system is used, and families are classified as having low level 3—8 points , middle level 9—14 points or high level 15—21 points social status. Due to the small number of subjects younger than 3 or older than 16 attending the examinations, the age range was reduced to 3 up to 16 years The resulting data were used for the calculation of the percentile curves.

Data analysis was carried out using R Version 3. Plausibility was tested for all data. Beyond that, no outliers were excluded. Age- and sex-related percentile curves for the particular skinfolds were estimated assuming an underlying four-parameter Box-Cox power exponential distribution [ 46 ] as an extension of the LMS method [ 47 ].

As LIFE Child recruits whole families with more than one child and has a longitudinal study design, our data contain measurements for siblings and also multiple measurements from individual children. For this reason, a resampling method was used to allow the inclusion of all measurements in the modelling of reference curves [ 48, 49 ].

Percentile curves were calculated for the 3rd P3 , 10th P10 , 50th M, median , 90th P90 and 97th P97 percentiles. Model quality was controlled using worm plots [ 50 ]. The reference population comprised young people from 1, families, producing a total of 6, cases The cutoffs for defining underweight, overweight and obesity were the 3rd, 90th and 97th percentiles of the age- and sex-adjusted BMI distribution [ 13, 51 ], respectively.

In The mean BMI-SDS was —0. The mean age was 9. The socioeconomic status of Age- and sex-related smoothed percentile curves for each skinfold are shown in Figure 1 ; percentile curves for the waist and hip parameters are represented in Figure 2.

The tables can be found in the supplementary material. The tables also contain the following parameters, which describe the age-based distribution: sigma σ, scale , nu ν, skewness , and tau τ, kurtosis, only for ST. The median triceps ST percentile M shows a decrease in boys and girls starting at the age of 3.

In boys, the values increase from the age of 7 until they reach a peak at 12 years with a subsequent decline. In girls, we see increasing values from 6 years upwards until the age of Girls have higher ST than boys from 4 years upwards, and the difference increases during adolescence 12—16 years , an effect mainly induced by the reduced ST in boys.

We found similar trends regarding the biceps ST curves: there is a decrease in both sexes until the age of 6 years for girls, and until 7 years for boys. We see higher values among girls than we do among boys of the same age, across the whole age range.

From the age of 3—6, there is, again, a decrease in the percentile curves for subscapular skinfold. In contrast to the triceps and biceps median percentile curves, this one shows a continuous increase for boys of this age except in the most extreme percentile P Among boys, the values for the 97th percentile in particular show a large increase in adolescence.

Female iliac crest ST percentiles follow a continuous upward trend with increasing age, whereas male percentiles decrease up to the age of 5. Iliac crest ST values for most percentile curves among the girls are higher than those for the boys. The 97th percentile is an exception for boys in adolescence: from the age of All percentiles except the iliac crest curves for the girls decrease during preschool age and increase from the age of approximately 6 years.

Female and male median HC percentiles M increase starting at the age of 3. All percentile curves show similar trends in both sexes, but the values for girls are higher overall. We found similar trends regarding the WC percentile curves: we see a relatively constant increase of the median percentiles from 3 to 16 years in both sexes with a plateau at the age of Overall, the 97th percentiles show a large increase in adolescence and boys show higher values in all WC percentile curves with an increasing difference between both sexes.

Both female and male WHR percentiles follow a downward trend with increasing age. The median WHtR percentiles show a decrease in both sexes with a plateau at the age of The 97th percentile of both sexes differs most significantly from these trends: after a decrease, we see increasing values from 8 years up to the age of 13, followed by a decline.

All WHtR percentiles show slightly higher values for boys. In this paper, ST, WC, HC, WHR and WHtR values are used as a measurement of BFP and body fat. As we see different trends for the specific anthropometric data, the combination of different measures provides more information compared to the use of BMI as a sole parameter for overweight or obesity.

The subscapular and iliac crest skinfolds, localized at the trunk of the body, show continuously increasing values in line with the increasing BMI during childhood and adolescence. The continuous increase of HC and WC as dimensions of trunk body fat fits these increasing ST values, especially during adolescence.

In contrast, the two skinfold values measured on the arm close to defined muscles show a peak for boys. This can be explained by the testosterone-mediated muscle growth during puberty [ 52 ]. Using Slaughter et al.

According to these estimates, BFP of the median percentile is the same at the age of 3 for both sexes approximately At the age of 6, girls show a slightly higher BFP of This difference increases up to the age of 16 girls: Schwandt et al.

Their calculations show a higher median BFP in females than in boys and a peak for boys at the age of 11, which is in line with our results. In comparison with their data, our values are higher overall.

Among participants in the 97th percentile for triceps and subscapular ST, we estimated a BFP of up to Higher values for girls are a feature of HC and all ST percentiles; WC percentiles are an exception with higher values for boys. Since the HC is influenced by bone structure, gluteal muscle mass and the subcutaneous fat tissue, it is rarely used on its own [ 53 ].

Rather it tends to feature in combination with other parameters such as WC or height: we see higher values of WHR for boys across the whole age range and an increasing difference between the sexes.

This is due to the increasing values among boys at the age of 16 in contrast to the still decreasing values in girls. In total, the median WHR shows a decrease of This higher figure for girls is due to the increasing HC and formation of the waist during puberty [ 54 ].

Different studies note critically that a reduction of body weight is associated with a reduction of both WC and HC.

As such, the WHR does not change despite slimmer body proportions [ 26, 55 ]. However, WHtR shows gender-specific trends: in girls it levels off at the age of These results may be influenced by the difference in growth patterns, with girls reaching their final height around 16 and boys reaching theirs around 18 [ 26 ].

The respective trends for skinfold percentiles have also been a feature in other comparable studies of German cohorts. The KiGGS study [ 56 ] provides data for triceps and subscapular ST of healthy children aged 3 to 18 years measured at different examination centers all over Germany.

Over all, the ST percentiles of the KiGGS study, especially those of the triceps, are higher than those in our study. Our results for ST also are comparable to those of international studies, such as recent data from Canada [ 56 ] and Norway [ 57 ].

Dif 30 , —, doi: Wetsman, A. How universal are preferences for female waist-to-hip ratios? Evidence from the Hadza of Tanzania.

Cashdan, E. Waist-to-Hip Ratio across cultures: Trade-offs between Androgen - and Estrogen - dependent traits. Epel, E. Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Folsom, A. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women.

Jama , —, doi: Huang, Z. a Leibel, R. Physiologic basis for the control of body fat distribution in humans.

Misra, A. Clinical and pathophysiological consequences of abdominal adiposity and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nutrition 19 , —, doi: Nelson, T. Psychological and behavioral predictors of body fat distribution: Age and gender effects.

Res 7 , —, doi: x Lassek, W. Waist-hip ratio and cognitive ability: Is gluteofemoral fat a privileged store of neurodevelopmental resources? Van Anders, S. Waist-to-hip ratio is positively associated with bioavailable testosterone but negatively associated with sexual desire in healthy premenopausal women.

d7 Jasienska, G. Habitual physical activity and estradiol levels in women of reproductive age. Cancer Prev. Rebuffe-Scrive, M. Fat cell metabolism in different regions in women.

Effect of menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. Invest 75 , —, doi: Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Santoro, N.

Björntorp, P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans. Disord 20 , — Google Scholar. Morgan, L. Diurnal variations in peripheral insulin resistance and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations: a possible link?

Van Hooff, M. Insulin, androgen, and gonadotropin concentration, body mass index, and waist to hip ratio in the first years after menarche in girls with regular menstrual cycle, irregular menstrual cycles, or oligomenorrhea.

Zaadstra, B. Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates. BMJ Br. J , —, doi: Article CAS Google Scholar. Kirschner, M. Sex hormone metabolism in upper and lower body obesity.

Obesity 15 , — CAS Google Scholar. Sohn, M. Visual analysis of body shape changes during pregnancy. Educ 5 , —, doi: Hughes, S. Jr Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior.

Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Behav 24 , — Brooks, R. The multivariate evolution of female body shape in an artificial digital ecosystem. Behav 36 , —, doi: Björkelund, C. Reproductive history in relation to relative weight and fat distribution. Den Tonkelaar, I.

Fat distribution in relation to age, degree of obesity, smoking habits, parity and estrogen use: A cross-sectional study in 11, Dutch women participating in the DOM-project.

Changes in body fat distribution in relation to parity in American women: a covert form of maternal depletion. Rodrigues, M. Association of the maternal experience and changes in adiposity measured by BMI, waist: hip ratio and percentage body fat in urban Brazilian women. Ross, R.

Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference? Rev 9 , —, doi: Tchernof, A. Effects of the menopause transition on body fatness and body fat distribution. Res 6 , —, doi: Troisi, R. Relation of body fat distribution to reproductive factors in pre- and postmenopausal women.

Res 3 , —, doi: Wells, J. Reproduction, aging, and body shape by three-dimensional photonic scanning in Thai men and women. Independent changes in female body shape with parity and age: a life-history approach to female adiposity.

v Zheng, W. Sulfotransferase 1A1 polymorphism, endogenous estrogen exposure, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev 10 , 89—94 Nenko, I. Fertility, body size, and shape: An empirical test of the covert maternal depletion hypothesis.

Malina, R. Regional body composition: age, sex, and ethnic variation. In Human Body Composition eds Roche, A. Wang, J. Asians have lower body mass index BMI but higher percent body fat than do whites: Comparisons of anthropometric measurements. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Leonard, W. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Apicella, C. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers. Nature , —, doi: Article ADS CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. The Hadza: Hunter-Gatherers of Tanzania Vol.

Woodburn, J. Egalitarian societies. Man 17 , —, doi: Sear, R. How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate. Lett 5 , —, doi: Mate preferences among Hadza hunter-gatherers. Nat 15 , —, doi: Elifuraha, I.

Tanzania in The Indigenous World ed. Wessendort, K. Tomikawa, M. Family and daily life: an ethnography of the Datoga Pastoralists in Mangola 1. Butovskaya, M.

Wife-battering and traditional methods of its control in contemporary Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania. Peace Res 4 , 28—44, doi: Sellen, D. Fertility, offspring quality, and wealth in Datoga pastoralists: testing evolutionary models of intersexual selection in Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective ed.

Cronk, L. Sanders, T. Making children, making chiefs: gender, power and ritual legitimacy. Africa 68 , —, doi: Invisible hands and visible goods: revealed and concealed economies in millennial Tanzania. In Dealing with Uncertainty in Contemporary African Lives eds Haram, L.

Beyond Bodies: Rainmaking and Sense-making in Tanzania Vol. Godoy, R. Does civilization cause discontentment among indigenous Amazonians? Psychol 31 , —, doi: Human capital, wealth, and nutrition in the Bolivian Amazon. Huanca, T. Ringhofer, L. Fishing, Foraging, and Farming in the Bolivian Amazon on a Local Society in Transition New York: Springer, Gurven, M.

A bioeconomic approach to marriage and the sexual division of labor. Nat 20 , —, doi: Novikova, N. Hunters and Oil workers: Studies in Legal Anthropology Moscow, Nauka, Kulemzin, V. Meet Khanty Novosibirsk, Nauka, Broch, H.

Minahasa Past and Present: Tradition and Transition in an Outer Island Region of Indonesia ed. Schefold, R. Leiden: Research School CNWS, Schouten, M. Leadership and social mobility in a Southeast Asian society: Minahasa , — Vol. Henley, D. Fertility, Food and Fever: Population, Economy and Environment in North and Central Sulawesi —, Vol.

Cultural consonance and body morphology: estimates with longitudinal data from an Amazonian society. Bunak, V. Anthropometry Uchpergiz: Moscow, Androgen receptor gene polymorphism, aggression, and reproduction in Tanzanian foragers and pastoralists.

PloS One 10 , e, doi: Raudenbush, S. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods Vol. Symons, D. The evolution of human sexuality revisited. Brain Sci. Vekemans, M. Postpartum contraception: The lactational amenorrhea method.

Health Care 2 , —, doi: Gaulin, S. Paternal confidence and paternal investment: A cross cultural test of a sociobiological hypothesis. Sociobiol 1 , —, doi: Anderson, K. Confidence of paternity, divorce, and investment in children by Albuquerque men. Bjorklund, D. Differences in parental investment contribute to important differences between men and women.

Rudavsky, S. Separating spheres: Legal ideology vs paternity testing in divorce cases. Context 12 , —, doi: Wilson, M.

Impact of the uncertainty of paternity on family law. University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review 45 , — Alexander, R. The evolution of social behavior. Trivers, R. Parental investment and sexual selection in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man ed.

Access options This phenomenon mainly occurs due to changes in total adiposity and in body weight. All measures of adiposity were positively associated with increased HCU although obesity may not be a strong predictor of HCU in older adults. Male preferences for female waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Rockville: National Institutes of Health; However, the directionality of the association of obesity and OS has been argued upon [ 14 ]. Suggested Reading Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on General and Central Obesity: Results from 20 Randomized Controlled Trials Involving Apparently Healthy Populations Ann Nutr Metab July,
Background

Finally, we would like to state that the study results can only be generalized to older Caucasian adults, aged 57—83 years, i. the participants of our study sample. In conclusion, this first longitudinal analysis of weight measures and OS biomarkers supports the hypotheses that body fat measures are relevantly associated with a decreasedantioxidant defense capacity of the organism.

We showed that these associations are inversely linear in older adults among whom almost no one was anorectic , which suggests the rule: the leaner the individual, the better the antioxidant defense capacity.

Clinical trials are needed to corroborate if weight reduction in obese, older adults can effectively increase TTL and subsequently increase life expectancy. Participants have given their written informed consent.

The study was approved by the Ethics Committees of Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg and the Medical Association of Saarland, and was conducted in line with the Declaration of Helsinki. This study was funded by a grant from the German Research Foundation grant No.

The ESTHER study was funded by grants from the Ministry for Social Affairs, Health, Women, and Family Affairs of the Saarland Saarbrücken, Germany , the Ministry of Science, Research, and Arts of Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart, Germany , the Federal Ministry of Education and Research Berlin, Germany , and the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women, and Youth Berlin, Germany.

The funders were not involved in any way in this project — neither study design, execution, analysis, data interpretation, nor writing of the manuscript. conducted the statistical analyses. wrote the first draft of the paper, and B. edited it. contributed to the measurement of the OS biomarkers.

reviewed the draft of the manuscript and contributed to the interpretation of the results and the discussion. Sign In or Create an Account. Search Dropdown Menu. header search search input Search input auto suggest.

filter your search All Content All Journals Obesity Facts. Advanced Search. Skip Nav Destination Close navigation menu Article navigation. Volume 13, Issue 1. Materials and Methods. Statement of Ethics. Disclosure Statement.

Funding Sources. Author Contributions. Article Navigation. Research Articles January 27 Longitudinal Associations of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist-to-Hip Ratio with Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Older Adults: Results of a Large Cohort Study Subject Area: Endocrinology , Further Areas , Gastroenterology , General Medicine , Nutrition and Dietetics , Psychiatry and Psychology , Public Health.

Ankita Anusruti ; Ankita Anusruti. a Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ , Heidelberg, Germany. b Network Aging Research, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. This Site. Google Scholar. Eugène H.

Jansen ; Eugène H. c Center for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Xīn Gào ; Xīn Gào. Yang Xuan ; Yang Xuan.

Hermann Brenner ; Hermann Brenner. d German Cancer Consortium DKTK , German Cancer Research Center DKFZ , Heidelberg, Germany. e Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases NCT , Heidelberg, Germany. Ben Schöttker Ben Schöttker.

schoettker dkfz. Obes Facts 13 1 : 66— Article history Received:. Cite Icon Cite. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest.

View large Download slide. Table 1. View large. View Large. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. We extend our gratitude to all ESTHER study participants and their GPs. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Search ADS. Update on the oxidative stress theory of aging: does oxidative stress play a role in aging or healthy aging? Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Plasma Oxidative Stress Markers 8-OHdG and F2-Isoprostanes and Associations with Metabolic Syndrome.

Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. Obesity and systemic oxidative stress: clinical correlates of oxidative stress in the Framingham Study.

Biomarkers and potential mechanisms of obesity-induced oxidant stress in humans. Platelet activation in obese women: role of inflammation and oxidant stress. Strong associations of hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study.

World Health Organization. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Oxidative stress markers and all-cause mortality at older age: a population-based cohort study. Statistics corner: A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Dose-response analyses using restricted cubic spline functions in public health research.

Systemic oxidative stress is associated with visceral fat accumulation and the metabolic syndrome. The implication of obesity on total antioxidant capacity in apparently healthy men and women: the ATTICA study. Evaluation of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in women with general and abdominal adiposity.

Association of abdominal obesity with decreased serum levels of carotenoids in a healthy Japanese population. A new simple method for the measurement of visceral fat accumulation by bioelectrical impedance.

Calorie restriction and aging: review of the literature and implications for studies in humans. Karger AG, Basel.

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4. Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission.

Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication.

However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions.

Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor s. The publisher and the editor s disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4. View Metrics. Email alerts Online First Alert.

Latest Issue Alert. Citing articles via Web Of Science CrossRef Latest Most Read Most Cited Body mass index and all-cause mortality in elderly patients with percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis.

Relationship between lipoprotein lipase derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue and cardio-ankle vascular index in Japanese patients with severe obesity. Postoperative dumping syndrome, health-related quality of life, anxiety, depression and eating disturbances: results of a longitudinal obesity surgery study.

Weight stigma in Latin America, Asia, Middle East, and Africa: A scoping review. Suggested Reading Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on General and Central Obesity: Results from 20 Randomized Controlled Trials Involving Apparently Healthy Populations Ann Nutr Metab July, Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Role of Adiposity Indicators and Age Obes Facts January, Is Waist-to-Height Ratio Superior to Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Predicting the Incidence of Hypertension?

Ann Nutr Metab March, Obesity and Body Fat Distribution: Ethnic Differences and the Role of Socio-Economic Status Obes Facts February, For example, large size of nulliparous Ob Ugric women and their low WHR could potentially affect our results.

However, as presented in the results section, even after exclusion of all females without children from all analyses the number of children remains a significant predictor of WHR in the whole sample.

In summary, we demonstrated a culturally stable, significant relationship between number of children and WHR among women, controlling for BMI and age.

Along with selection of younger and healthier women, preferences for low WHRs may enable men to mate with women of highest possible reproductive potential. These findings increase our understanding of sexual preferences in traditional, small-scale societies that approximate reproductive and infectious disease conditions under which the evolutionary adaptations arose.

Singh, D. Female mate value at a glance: relationship of waist-to-hip ratio to health, fecundity and attractiveness. Lett 23 , 81—91 PubMed Google Scholar. Sugiyama, L. Physical attractiveness in adaptationist perspective. In The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology ed.

Buss, D. Physical attractiveness: An adaptationist perspective. In The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology second ed.

Rozmus-Wrzesinska, M. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist-to-hip ratio. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Platek, S. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

PLoS One 5 , e, doi: Article ADS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Dixson, B. et al. Human physique and sexual attractiveness: Sexual preferences of men and women in Bakossiland, Cameroon. Article Google Scholar. Male preferences for female waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

Sorokowski, P. PLoS One 9 , e, doi: Is beauty in the context-sensitive adaptations of the beholder? Shiwiar use of waist-to-hip ratio in assessments of female mate value.

Marlowe, F. Preferred waist-to-hip ratio and ecology. Dif 30 , —, doi: Wetsman, A. How universal are preferences for female waist-to-hip ratios? Evidence from the Hadza of Tanzania. Cashdan, E. Waist-to-Hip Ratio across cultures: Trade-offs between Androgen - and Estrogen - dependent traits. Epel, E.

Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Folsom, A. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women. Jama , —, doi: Huang, Z. a Leibel, R.

Physiologic basis for the control of body fat distribution in humans. Misra, A. Clinical and pathophysiological consequences of abdominal adiposity and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nutrition 19 , —, doi: Nelson, T.

Psychological and behavioral predictors of body fat distribution: Age and gender effects. Res 7 , —, doi: x Lassek, W. Waist-hip ratio and cognitive ability: Is gluteofemoral fat a privileged store of neurodevelopmental resources?

Van Anders, S. Waist-to-hip ratio is positively associated with bioavailable testosterone but negatively associated with sexual desire in healthy premenopausal women.

d7 Jasienska, G. Habitual physical activity and estradiol levels in women of reproductive age. Cancer Prev. Rebuffe-Scrive, M. Fat cell metabolism in different regions in women. Effect of menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. Invest 75 , —, doi: Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Santoro, N. Björntorp, P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans. Disord 20 , — Google Scholar. Morgan, L. Diurnal variations in peripheral insulin resistance and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations: a possible link? Van Hooff, M. Insulin, androgen, and gonadotropin concentration, body mass index, and waist to hip ratio in the first years after menarche in girls with regular menstrual cycle, irregular menstrual cycles, or oligomenorrhea.

Zaadstra, B. Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates. BMJ Br. J , —, doi: Article CAS Google Scholar. Kirschner, M. Sex hormone metabolism in upper and lower body obesity.

Obesity 15 , — CAS Google Scholar. Sohn, M. Visual analysis of body shape changes during pregnancy. Educ 5 , —, doi: Hughes, S. Jr Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior. Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios.

Behav 24 , — Brooks, R. The multivariate evolution of female body shape in an artificial digital ecosystem. Behav 36 , —, doi: Björkelund, C. Reproductive history in relation to relative weight and fat distribution.

Den Tonkelaar, I. Fat distribution in relation to age, degree of obesity, smoking habits, parity and estrogen use: A cross-sectional study in 11, Dutch women participating in the DOM-project. Changes in body fat distribution in relation to parity in American women: a covert form of maternal depletion.

Rodrigues, M. Association of the maternal experience and changes in adiposity measured by BMI, waist: hip ratio and percentage body fat in urban Brazilian women. Ross, R. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference?

Rev 9 , —, doi: Tchernof, A. Effects of the menopause transition on body fatness and body fat distribution. Res 6 , —, doi: Troisi, R. Relation of body fat distribution to reproductive factors in pre- and postmenopausal women.

Res 3 , —, doi: Wells, J. Reproduction, aging, and body shape by three-dimensional photonic scanning in Thai men and women. Independent changes in female body shape with parity and age: a life-history approach to female adiposity. v Zheng, W. Sulfotransferase 1A1 polymorphism, endogenous estrogen exposure, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev 10 , 89—94 Nenko, I. Fertility, body size, and shape: An empirical test of the covert maternal depletion hypothesis. Malina, R. Regional body composition: age, sex, and ethnic variation. In Human Body Composition eds Roche, A. Wang, J. Asians have lower body mass index BMI but higher percent body fat than do whites: Comparisons of anthropometric measurements.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Leonard, W. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Apicella, C. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers. Nature , —, doi: Article ADS CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. The Hadza: Hunter-Gatherers of Tanzania Vol.

Woodburn, J. Egalitarian societies. Man 17 , —, doi: Sear, R. How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate. Lett 5 , —, doi: Mate preferences among Hadza hunter-gatherers. Nat 15 , —, doi: Elifuraha, I. Tanzania in The Indigenous World ed.

Wessendort, K. Tomikawa, M. Family and daily life: an ethnography of the Datoga Pastoralists in Mangola 1. Butovskaya, M. Wife-battering and traditional methods of its control in contemporary Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania.

Peace Res 4 , 28—44, doi: Sellen, D. Fertility, offspring quality, and wealth in Datoga pastoralists: testing evolutionary models of intersexual selection in Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective ed.

Cronk, L. Sanders, T. Making children, making chiefs: gender, power and ritual legitimacy. Africa 68 , —, doi: Invisible hands and visible goods: revealed and concealed economies in millennial Tanzania.

In Dealing with Uncertainty in Contemporary African Lives eds Haram, L. Beyond Bodies: Rainmaking and Sense-making in Tanzania Vol. Godoy, R. Does civilization cause discontentment among indigenous Amazonians? Psychol 31 , —, doi: Human capital, wealth, and nutrition in the Bolivian Amazon.

Huanca, T. Ringhofer, L. Fishing, Foraging, and Farming in the Bolivian Amazon on a Local Society in Transition New York: Springer, Gurven, M. A bioeconomic approach to marriage and the sexual division of labor. Nat 20 , —, doi: Novikova, N. Hunters and Oil workers: Studies in Legal Anthropology Moscow, Nauka, Kulemzin, V.

Meet Khanty Novosibirsk, Nauka, Broch, H. Minahasa Past and Present: Tradition and Transition in an Outer Island Region of Indonesia ed. Schefold, R. Leiden: Research School CNWS, Schouten, M. Leadership and social mobility in a Southeast Asian society: Minahasa , — Vol.

Henley, D. Fertility, Food and Fever: Population, Economy and Environment in North and Central Sulawesi —, Vol. Cultural consonance and body morphology: estimates with longitudinal data from an Amazonian society.

Bunak, V. Anthropometry Uchpergiz: Moscow, Androgen receptor gene polymorphism, aggression, and reproduction in Tanzanian foragers and pastoralists. PloS One 10 , e, doi: Raudenbush, S. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods Vol.

Symons, D. The evolution of human sexuality revisited. Brain Sci. Vekemans, M. Postpartum contraception: The lactational amenorrhea method. Health Care 2 , —, doi: Gaulin, S. Paternal confidence and paternal investment: A cross cultural test of a sociobiological hypothesis. Sociobiol 1 , —, doi: Anderson, K.

Confidence of paternity, divorce, and investment in children by Albuquerque men. Bjorklund, D. Differences in parental investment contribute to important differences between men and women.

Rudavsky, S. Separating spheres: Legal ideology vs paternity testing in divorce cases. Context 12 , —, doi: Wilson, M. Impact of the uncertainty of paternity on family law.

University of Toronto Faculty of Law Review 45 , — Alexander, R. The evolution of social behavior. Trivers, R. Parental investment and sexual selection in Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man ed. Campbell, B. Xia, X. Uncertainty of paternity can select against paternal care. Dubey, S. Study of reasons for non-payment of child support by non-custodial parents.

Welf 22 , — Who tends Hadza children? In Hunter-gatherer Childhoods eds Hewlett, B. Botwin, M. Personality and mate preferences: Five factors in mate selection and marital satisfaction. issue-1 Selection, evocation, and manipulation.

Kenrick, D. Integrating evolutionary and social exchange perspectives on relationships: Effects of gender, self-appraisal, and involvement level on mate selection criteria.

Sexual strategies theory: an evolutionary perspective on human mating. Haselton, M. Can men detect ovulation?

Pawlowski, B. Loss of oestrus and concealed ovulation in human evolution: the case against the sexual-selection hypothesis. Yu, D. Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Article ADS CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Download references.

We are grateful to our respondents for their tolerance and friendly attitude towards us during the entire period of study. Field studies in Tanzania were approved by COSTECH, and supported by RFH grants , for MB.

Data analysis was conducted in line with RFBR grant and for MB, FJ and DD. and P. were supported by the funds of Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education scholarship to AS for years — and to P. for years — Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow, Russia. Institute of Psychology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland. Sorokowska, A. Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, TU Dresden, Germany.

Creative Education Lab, Academy of Special Education, Warsaw, Poland. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Authors P. Sor, M. Sab made substantial theoretical contributions; M. Sor, J. contributed conceptually to the experimental design and collected cross-cultural data; P.

Sab drafted the manuscript; M. performed statistical analyses. All authors revised the paper for content and approved the final version for submission. Correspondence to P. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Waist-to-hip ratio, body-mass index, age and number of children in seven traditional societies.

Sci Rep 7 , Download citation. Received : 16 February Accepted : 13 March Published : 09 May Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process -

Volume 2. Article Contents Abstract. Journal Article. J Hallgren , J Hallgren. Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jonkoping, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden.

Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. I Karlsson, PhD. Institute of Gerontology and Aging Research Network ARN-J , School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

A K Dahl Aslan, PhD. PDF Split View Views. Select Format Select format. ris Mendeley, Papers, Zotero. enw EndNote. bibtex BibTex. txt Medlars, RefWorks Download citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Close Navbar Search Filter Innovation in Aging This issue GSA Journals Gerontology and Ageing Books Journals Oxford Academic Enter search term Search.

Abstract Central obesity, often measured by waist-hip ratio WHR , is considered to be a better health indicator than body mass index BMI.

Issue Section:. Download all slides. Comments 0. Add comment Close comment form modal. I agree to the terms and conditions. You must accept the terms and conditions.

Here's why. New research finds that bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment to help control high blood pressure. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect.

What Is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio? Medically reviewed by Angela M. Bell, MD, FACP — By Stephanie Watson and Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA — Updated on February 2, Calculate Advantages of WHR Disadvantages of WHR Takeaway The waist-to-hip ratio WHR calculation is one way your doctor can see if excess weight is putting your health at risk.

Health risk Women Men low 0. Ways to calculate your waist-to-hip ratio. What are the advantages of using this method? What are the disadvantages of using this method?

How we reviewed this article: Sources. Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations.

We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy. Feb 2, Written By Stephanie Watson, Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA. Nov 18, Medically Reviewed By Angela M. Bell, MD, FACP.

Share this article. Read this next. What Is a Calorie Deficit, and How Much of One Is Healthy? By Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD. PLoS One 9 , e, doi: Is beauty in the context-sensitive adaptations of the beholder? Shiwiar use of waist-to-hip ratio in assessments of female mate value.

Marlowe, F. Preferred waist-to-hip ratio and ecology. Dif 30 , —, doi: Wetsman, A. How universal are preferences for female waist-to-hip ratios? Evidence from the Hadza of Tanzania. Cashdan, E. Waist-to-Hip Ratio across cultures: Trade-offs between Androgen - and Estrogen - dependent traits.

Epel, E. Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Folsom, A. Body fat distribution and 5-year risk of death in older women.

Jama , —, doi: Huang, Z. a Leibel, R. Physiologic basis for the control of body fat distribution in humans. Misra, A. Clinical and pathophysiological consequences of abdominal adiposity and abdominal adipose tissue depots.

Nutrition 19 , —, doi: Nelson, T. Psychological and behavioral predictors of body fat distribution: Age and gender effects.

Res 7 , —, doi: x Lassek, W. Waist-hip ratio and cognitive ability: Is gluteofemoral fat a privileged store of neurodevelopmental resources? Van Anders, S. Waist-to-hip ratio is positively associated with bioavailable testosterone but negatively associated with sexual desire in healthy premenopausal women.

d7 Jasienska, G. Habitual physical activity and estradiol levels in women of reproductive age. Cancer Prev. Rebuffe-Scrive, M.

Fat cell metabolism in different regions in women. Effect of menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. Invest 75 , —, doi: Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Santoro, N. Björntorp, P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans.

Disord 20 , — Google Scholar. Morgan, L. Diurnal variations in peripheral insulin resistance and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations: a possible link?

Van Hooff, M. Insulin, androgen, and gonadotropin concentration, body mass index, and waist to hip ratio in the first years after menarche in girls with regular menstrual cycle, irregular menstrual cycles, or oligomenorrhea.

Zaadstra, B. Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates. BMJ Br. J , —, doi: Article CAS Google Scholar. Kirschner, M. Sex hormone metabolism in upper and lower body obesity. Obesity 15 , — CAS Google Scholar.

Sohn, M. Visual analysis of body shape changes during pregnancy. Educ 5 , —, doi: Hughes, S. Jr Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior. Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios.

Behav 24 , — Brooks, R. The multivariate evolution of female body shape in an artificial digital ecosystem. Behav 36 , —, doi: Björkelund, C. Reproductive history in relation to relative weight and fat distribution. Den Tonkelaar, I. Fat distribution in relation to age, degree of obesity, smoking habits, parity and estrogen use: A cross-sectional study in 11, Dutch women participating in the DOM-project.

Changes in body fat distribution in relation to parity in American women: a covert form of maternal depletion. Rodrigues, M.

Association of the maternal experience and changes in adiposity measured by BMI, waist: hip ratio and percentage body fat in urban Brazilian women. Ross, R. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference?

Rev 9 , —, doi: Tchernof, A. Effects of the menopause transition on body fatness and body fat distribution. Res 6 , —, doi: Troisi, R. Relation of body fat distribution to reproductive factors in pre- and postmenopausal women. Res 3 , —, doi: Wells, J. Reproduction, aging, and body shape by three-dimensional photonic scanning in Thai men and women.

Independent changes in female body shape with parity and age: a life-history approach to female adiposity. v Zheng, W. Sulfotransferase 1A1 polymorphism, endogenous estrogen exposure, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev 10 , 89—94 Nenko, I. Fertility, body size, and shape: An empirical test of the covert maternal depletion hypothesis. Malina, R. Regional body composition: age, sex, and ethnic variation. In Human Body Composition eds Roche, A. Wang, J. Asians have lower body mass index BMI but higher percent body fat than do whites: Comparisons of anthropometric measurements.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Leonard, W. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Apicella, C. Social networks and cooperation in hunter-gatherers. Nature , —, doi: Article ADS CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

The Hadza: Hunter-Gatherers of Tanzania Vol. Woodburn, J. Egalitarian societies. Man 17 , —, doi: Sear, R. How universal are human mate choices? Size does not matter when Hadza foragers are choosing a mate. Lett 5 , —, doi: Mate preferences among Hadza hunter-gatherers.

Nat 15 , —, doi: Elifuraha, I. Tanzania in The Indigenous World ed. Wessendort, K. Tomikawa, M. Family and daily life: an ethnography of the Datoga Pastoralists in Mangola 1.

Butovskaya, M. Wife-battering and traditional methods of its control in contemporary Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania.

Peace Res 4 , 28—44, doi: Sellen, D. Fertility, offspring quality, and wealth in Datoga pastoralists: testing evolutionary models of intersexual selection in Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective ed. Cronk, L. Sanders, T.

Making children, making chiefs: gender, power and ritual legitimacy. Africa 68 , —, doi: Invisible hands and visible goods: revealed and concealed economies in millennial Tanzania.

In Dealing with Uncertainty in Contemporary African Lives eds Haram, L. Beyond Bodies: Rainmaking and Sense-making in Tanzania Vol. Godoy, R. Does civilization cause discontentment among indigenous Amazonians? Psychol 31 , —, doi: Human capital, wealth, and nutrition in the Bolivian Amazon.

Huanca, T. Ringhofer, L. Fishing, Foraging, and Farming in the Bolivian Amazon on a Local Society in Transition New York: Springer, Gurven, M. A bioeconomic approach to marriage and the sexual division of labor.

Nat 20 , —, doi: Novikova, N. Hunters and Oil workers: Studies in Legal Anthropology Moscow, Nauka, Kulemzin, V.

Meet Khanty Novosibirsk, Nauka, Broch, H. Minahasa Past and Present: Tradition and Transition in an Outer Island Region of Indonesia ed. Schefold, R.

Leiden: Research School CNWS, Schouten, M. Leadership and social mobility in a Southeast Asian society: Minahasa , — Vol. Henley, D. Fertility, Food and Fever: Population, Economy and Environment in North and Central Sulawesi —, Vol.

Cultural consonance and body morphology: estimates with longitudinal data from an Amazonian society. Bunak, V. Anthropometry Uchpergiz: Moscow, Androgen receptor gene polymorphism, aggression, and reproduction in Tanzanian foragers and pastoralists.

PloS One 10 , e, doi: Raudenbush, S. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods Vol. Symons, D. The evolution of human sexuality revisited. Brain Sci. Vekemans, M. Postpartum contraception: The lactational amenorrhea method.

Health Care 2 , —, doi: Gaulin, S. Paternal confidence and paternal investment: A cross cultural test of a sociobiological hypothesis. Sociobiol 1 , —, doi: Anderson, K. Confidence of paternity, divorce, and investment in children by Albuquerque men. Bjorklund, D.

Differences in parental investment contribute to important differences between men and women. Rudavsky, S. Separating spheres: Legal ideology vs paternity testing in divorce cases. Context 12 , —, doi: Wilson, M. Impact of the uncertainty of paternity on family law.

Ratii you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited pprocess for CSS. To obtain agong best experience, we recommend you Broccoli and quinoa dishes a anr up to date browser or Broccoli and quinoa dishes Wqist-to-hip compatibility mode in Prlcess Explorer. Citrus aurantium for cognitive function the meantime, to Waist-to-ip continued support, we Immune system-boosting drinks displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. It has been suggested that the preference for low WHRs evolved because low WHR provided a cue to female reproductive status and health, and therefore to her reproductive value. The present study aimed to test whether WHR might indeed be a reliable cue to female reproductive history with lower WHRs indicating lower number of children. Previous studies showed such a relationship for modern and industrialized populations, but it has not been investigated in natural fertility, indigenous, more energy constrained populations facing greater trade-offs in energy allocation than do modern societies. Ankita AnusrutiEugène H. Jansen procesw, Xīn GàoYang Natural immunity supportCitrus aurantium for cognitive function BrennerBen Waist-to--hip Longitudinal Associations of Body Mass Rati, Waist Circumference, and Agging Ratio with Broccoli and quinoa dishes of Oxidative Stress in Older Adults: Results of a Large Cohort Study. Obes Facts 20 February ; 13 1 : 66— Background: In the literature, obesity is discussed as a determinant of high oxidative stress OS. The longitudinal associations of body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference with D-ROM and TTL were assessed with multivariable adjusted generalized linear models. Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process -

Batsis JA, Mackenzie TA, Bartels SJ, Sahakyan KR, Somers VK, Lopez-Jimenez F. Diagnostic accuracy of body mass index to identify obesity in older adults: NHANES — Elagizi A, Kachur S, Lavie CJ, Carbone S, Pandey A, Ortega FB, et al. An overview and update on obesity and the obesity paradox in cardiovascular diseases.

Progr Cardiovasc Dis. Dickey RA, Bartuska D, Bray GW, Callaway CW, Davidson ET, Feld S. Endocr Pract. Maintaining contact questionnaire tracing and comprehensive. Andersen RM. Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: does it matter?

J Health Soc Behav. Derived variable—alcohol use ALC tracking and comprehensive assessments. Andresen EM, Malmgren JA, Carter WB, Patrick DL. Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.

Am J Prev Med. Tjepkema M. Measured obesity adult obesity in Canada: measured height and weight. Naimi AI, Whitcomb BW. Estimating risk ratios and risk differences using regression.

Am J Epidemiol. Banack HR, Wactawski-Wende J, Hovey KM, Stokes A. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in post-menopausal women?. Padwal R, Leslie WD, Lix LM, Majumdar SR. Relationship among body fat percentage, body mass index, and all-cause mortality: a cohort study.

Ann Intern Med. Blew RM, Sardinha LB, Milliken LA, Teixeira PJ, Going SB, Ferreira DL, et al. Assessing the validity of body mass index standards in early postmenopausal women. Silva BR, Mialich MS, Hoffman DJ, Jordão AA. BMI, BMIfat, BAI or BAIFels—which is the best adiposity index for the detection of excess weight?.

Nutr Hosp. Chen Y-M, Ho SC, Lam SSH, Chan SSG. Validity of body mass index and waist circumference in the classification of obesity as compared to percent body fat in Chinese middle-aged women. Flegal KM, Shepherd JA, Looker AC, Graubard BI, Borrud LG, Ogden CL, et al.

Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults Am J Clin Nutr. Ehrampoush E, Arasteh P, Homayounfar R, Cheraghpour M, Alipour M, Naghizadeh MM, et al. New anthropometric indices or old ones: which is the better predictor of body fat?

Diabetes Metab Syndr: Clin Res Rev. Ospina PA, Nydam DV, DiCiccio TJ. Technical note: the risk ratio, an alternative to the odds ratio for estimating the association between multiple risk factors and a dichotomous outcome.

J Dairy Sci. Newbold B. Health status and health care of immigrants in Canada: a longitudinal analysis.

J Health Serv Res Policy. Zarychanski R, Chen Y, Bernstein CN, Hébert PC. Frequency of colorectal cancer screening and the impact of family physicians on screening behaviour. Short ME, Goetzel RZ, Pei X, Tabrizi MJ, Ozminkowski RJ, Gibson TB, et al.

How accurate are self-reports? An analysis of self-reported healthcare utilization and absence when compared to administrative data. J Occup Environ Med. Raina P, Torrance-Rynard V, Wong M, Woodward C.

Agreement between self-reported and routinely collected health-care utilization data among seniors. Health Serv Res. Bhandari A, Wagner T. Self-reported utilization of health care services: improving measurement and accuracy. Med Care Res Rev. Stranges S, Dorn JM, Muti P, Freudenheim JL, Farinaro E, Russell M, et al.

Body fat distribution, relative weight, and liver enzyme levels: a population-based study. Woolcott OO, Bergman RN. Defining cutoffs to diagnose obesity using the relative fat mass RFM : association with mortality in NHANES — Download references.

The CLSA is led by Drs Parminder Raina, Christina Wolfson, and Susan Kirkland. Funding for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging CLSA is provided by the Government of Canada through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research CIHR under grant reference LSA and the Canada Foundation for Innovation.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Alessandra T. Andreacchi, Lauren E. Griffith, G. Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Population Health Research Institute, David Braley Cardiac, Vascular and Stroke Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg. Division of Child Health Evaluative Sciences CHES , Sick Kids Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Laura N. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All participants provided written informed consent upon enrollment into the CLSA. Further, secondary data analysis for this specific project was approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board, Hamilton, Ontario HiREB C.

Reprints and permissions. Andreacchi, A. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat in relation to health care use in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Int J Obes 45 , — Download citation. Received : 06 July Revised : 21 October Accepted : 09 December Published : 11 January Issue Date : March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. nature international journal of obesity articles article.

Subjects Body mass index Epidemiology Geriatrics Obesity. Conclusions All measures of adiposity were positively associated with increased HCU although obesity may not be a strong predictor of HCU in older adults. Access through your institution.

Buy or subscribe. Change institution. Learn more. References Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan M, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, et al. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Dixon JB. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar WHO. html Health Canada. html Lau DCW, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, Hramiak IM, Sharma AM, Ur E, et al.

Article Google Scholar Zamboni M, Mazzali G, Zoico E, Harris TB, Meigs JB, Di Francesco V, et al. Article CAS Google Scholar World Health Organization. Article PubMed Google Scholar Andreyeva T, Sturm R, Ringel JS. Article PubMed Google Scholar Bertakis KD, Azari R. Article PubMed Google Scholar Chen Y, Jiang Y, Mao Y.

Article CAS Google Scholar Lengerke T, von, Happich M, Reitmeir P, John J, Kora Study Group. Article PubMed Google Scholar Luchsinger JA, Lee W, Carrasquillo O, Rabinowitz D, Shea S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Musich S, MacLeod S, Bhattarai GR, Wang SS, Hawkins K, Bottone FG, et al. Google Scholar Nigatu YT, Bültmann U, Schoevers RA, Penninx BWJH, Reijneveld SA.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Quesenberry CP, Caan B, Jacobson A. Article PubMed Google Scholar Raebel MA, Malone DC, Conner DA, Xu S, Porter JA, Lanty FA. Article PubMed Google Scholar Suehs BT, Kamble P, Huang J, Hammer M, Bouchard J, Costantino ME, et al.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Trakas K, Lawrence K, Bs M, Shear NH. Google Scholar Twells LK, Knight J, Alaghehbandan R. Article PubMed Google Scholar Twells LK, Bridger T, Knight JC, Alaghehbandan R, Barrett B. Article PubMed Google Scholar Vals K, Kiivet R-A, Leinsalu M.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Wildenschild C, Kjøller M, Sabroe S, Erlandsen M, Heitmann BL. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Wolfenstetter SB, Menn P, Holle R, Mielck A, Meisinger C, von Lengerke T. Google Scholar Wong JJ, Hood KK, Breland JY.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Gorber SC, Tremblay M, Moher D, Gorber B. Article PubMed Google Scholar Akhtar-Danesh N, Dehghan M, Merchant AT, Rainey JA. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Elgar FJ, Stewart JM. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar World Health Organization.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Canadian longitudinal study on aging. Article CAS Google Scholar Elagizi A, Kachur S, Lavie CJ, Carbone S, Pandey A, Ortega FB, et al.

Article Google Scholar Dickey RA, Bartuska D, Bray GW, Callaway CW, Davidson ET, Feld S. Google Scholar Canadian longitudinal study on aging. Article CAS Google Scholar Canadian longitudinal study on aging. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Tjepkema M.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Banack HR, Wactawski-Wende J, Hovey KM, Stokes A. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Padwal R, Leslie WD, Lix LM, Majumdar SR. Article PubMed Google Scholar Blew RM, Sardinha LB, Milliken LA, Teixeira PJ, Going SB, Ferreira DL, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Silva BR, Mialich MS, Hoffman DJ, Jordão AA.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Chen Y-M, Ho SC, Lam SSH, Chan SSG. Article Google Scholar Flegal KM, Shepherd JA, Looker AC, Graubard BI, Borrud LG, Ogden CL, et al.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ehrampoush E, Arasteh P, Homayounfar R, Cheraghpour M, Alipour M, Naghizadeh MM, et al. For example, a study with more than 15, adults showed that a high WHR was linked to an increased risk of early death — even in people with a moderate BMI.

Researchers have also found decreasing WHR is associated with greater health benefits. A study found that decreasing WHR by 5 percent significantly lowered risks of developing chronic kidney disease in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Another study suggested that using the WHR method to predict health outcomes could be particularly useful in certain groups of people. For example, WHR may be a better gauge of obesity in older adults whose body compositions have changed. And, it can be hard to get an accurate measurement of your hips.

WHR can also be harder to interpret than waist circumference — another measurement of abdominal obesity. You might have a high WHR because you carry more weight in your abdomen.

Or, you might simply have extra muscle around your hips from working out. WHR is also not recommended for use in children. Waist-to-hip-ratio is a quick and easy way to check how much weight you carry around your middle. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

VIEW ALL HISTORY. If you've ever tried to lose weight, you've likely heard that you need a calorie deficit. This article explains what a calorie deficit is and how to…. You may regularly enjoy a cup of tea and wonder whether this ubiquitous drink has any calories.

This article tells you everything you need to know…. Green tea is packed with health-promoting compounds, but many wonder how many cups you have to drink to reap their benefits.

This article determines…. Weight loss patches are supposed to be quick, easy ways to lose weight. But do they actually work?

And are they safe? Read on to find out. Patients with diabetes who used GLP-1 drugs, including tirzepatide, semaglutide, dulaglutide, and exenatide had a decreased chance of being diagnosed…. Some studies suggest vaping may help manage your weight, but others show mixed…. The amount of time it takes to recover from weight loss surgery depends on the type of surgery and surgical technique you receive.

New research suggests that running may not aid much with weight loss, but it can help you keep from gaining weight as you age.

Here's why. New research finds that bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment to help control high blood pressure. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. What Is the Waist-to-Hip Ratio? Medically reviewed by Angela M. Bell, MD, FACP — By Stephanie Watson and Rachel Nall, MSN, CRNA — Updated on February 2, Calculate Advantages of WHR Disadvantages of WHR Takeaway The waist-to-hip ratio WHR calculation is one way your doctor can see if excess weight is putting your health at risk.

Waist-to-hip ratio Waist-to-hi may be Waist-yo-hip accurate than body procsss index Broccoli and quinoa dishes in predicting Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process Exercise tips for seniors outcomes like cancer, heart Broccoli and quinoa dishes, process death, a new Fruit-Flavored Yogurts finds. Datio has long been the go-to metric for assessing agng weight and health but has been criticized in recent years for being misleading and potentially harmful. For the new study, published earlier this month in JAMAresearchers wanted to understand how to best assess risk factors for chronic disease, lead author Guillaume Paré, MDa professor of medicine at McMaster University, told Health. Researchers analyzed data from nearlypeople with an average age of The information came from the UK Biobank, a medical research database containing anonymous health information for half a million people in the United Kingdom. The scientists employed a method called Mendelian randomization to consider obesity-associated genetic variants during their analysis.

Author: Daimi

2 thoughts on “Waist-to-hip ratio and aging process

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com