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Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease

Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease

Miyasaka et al. Ismail, Dlsease. Department of Energy and Disdase National Institutes of Health. Cutcumin Diuretic effect on pregnancy permissions Reprints Sustainably sourced sunflower seeds Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease. Methodology Experimental animals Male Wistar rats 8—10 months old, average weight —g were purchased and housed in the animal house facility, faculty of Medicine, Assiut University until they were slaughtered. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

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Does Turmeric Prevent Alzheimer's?

Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease -

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Alzheimer's Disease. By Brian P. Medically Reviewed. Sanjai Sinha, MD. This combination dramatically enhanced the beneficial effects of CUR.

In addition, the increased ability of curcumin by ginkgo biloba extract to attenuate cholinesterase activity, and enhance its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, was evidenced. These effects may be mediated by activate gap junctions, improve the para-cellular permeability of the BBB via adenosine receptor activation and P-glycoprotein inhibitor of ginkgo biloba extract.

This research may serve as a stepping stone to the creation of an innovative anti-neurodegeneration prophylactic strategy. Moreover, it may support the idea that ginkgo biloba extract and curcumin may be used together to prevent the central pathological changes that result in the occurrence of AD, and arrest the progression of AD successfully.

Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be applied to reveal the effectiveness of this combination strategy in treatment of the AD.

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Some data may not be made available because of privacy or ethical restrictions. Abbas S, Latif M, Shafie N, Ghazali M, Abidin N, Mustafa M, Kormin F A review of antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of Centella asiatica L.

Food Res — Article Google Scholar. J Chem Neuroanat Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Akinyemi AJ, Oboh G, Oyeleye SI, Ogunsuyi O Anti-amnestic effect of curcumin in combination with donepezil, an anticholinesterase drug: involvement of cholinergic system.

Neurotox Res — Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm — Antona ME, González PM, Ramos C, Cabrera J, Olano C, Morales C, Zago V, Steimetz T, Puntarulo S, Friedman SM Curcumin exerts a protective effect against obesity and liver injury induced by an atherogenic diet.

Funct Foods Health Dis — CAS Google Scholar. Antunes M, Biala G The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications. Cogn Process — Ashok A, Rai NK, Tripathi S, Bandyopadhyay S Exposure to As- Cd-, and Pb-mixture induces Aβ, amyloidogenic APP processing and cognitive impairments via oxidative stress-dependent neuroinflammation in young rats.

Toxicol Sci — Pre-Clinical Research 2 1. Assi A-A, Abdelnabi S, Attaai A, Abd-Ellatief RB Effect of ivabradine on cognitive functions of rats with scopolamine-induced dementia.

Sci Rep — Toxicology — Banji OJ, Banji D, Ch K Curcumin and hesperidin improve cognition by suppressing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by D-galactose in rat brain. Food Chem Toxicol — Barichello T, dos Santos I, Savi GD, Simões LR, Silvestre T, Comim CM, Sachs D, Teixeira MM, Teixeira AL, Quevedo J TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and cinc-1 levels in rat brain after meningitis induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

J Neuroimmunol — Begum AN, Jones MR, Lim GP, Morihara T, Kim P, Heath DD, Rock CL, Pruitt MA, Yang F, Hudspeth BJJOP, Therapeutics E Curcumin structure-function, bioavailability, and efficacy in models of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther — Article CAS Google Scholar. Beutler E Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione.

J Lab Clin Med — CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Botton PH, Costa MS, Ardais AP, Mioranzza S, Souza DO, da Rocha JBT, Porciúncula LO Caffeine prevents disruption of memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks by scopolamine in adult mice.

Behav Brain Res — Pharmacol Rev — Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Cahill MK, Huang EJ Testing the amyloid hypothesis with a humanized AD mouse model. Neuron — Int J Gerontol —6. Alzheimers Res Ther Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Curr Neuropharmacol — Article PubMed Google Scholar.

Med Res Rev — Dong X Current strategies for brain drug delivery. Theranostics 58 6 — Brain Res — El Gizawy HA, Abo-Salem HM, Ali AA, Hussein MA Phenolic profiling and therapeutic potential of certain isolated compounds from parkia roxburghii against AChE activity as well as GABAA α5, GSK-3β, and p38α MAP-kinase genes.

ACS Omega — Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres JRV, Featherstone RM A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol — Fan L, Tao G-Y, Wang G, Chen Y, Zhang W, He Y-J, Li Q, Lei H-P, Jiang F, Hu D-L Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers.

Ann Pharmacother — Fan C-D, Li Y, Fu X-T, Wu Q-J, Hou Y-J, Yang M-F, Sun J-Y, Fu X-Y, Zheng Z-C, Sun B-L Reversal of beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by curcumin, the important role of ROS-mediated signaling and ERK pathway.

Cell Mol Neurobiol — Forloni G, Chiesa R, Smiroldo S, Verga L, Salmona M, Tagliavini F, Angeretti N Apoptosis mediated neurotoxicity induced by chronic application of beta amyloid fragment 25— NeuroReport — Ann Neurol — Guo C, Wang H, Liang W, Xu W, Li Y, Song L, Zhang D, Hu Y, Han B, Wang W Bilobalide reversibly modulates blood-brain barrier permeability through promoting adenosine A1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of actin-binding proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun — Hoerr R, Zimmermann A, Seitz F, Dienel A Single and repeated doses of EGb ® do not affect pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in healthy subjects.

Front Pharmacol — Jurcau A Insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases: focus on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci J Neurochem — Li W, Tao S, Wu Q, Wu T, Tao R, Fan J Glutamine reduces myocardial cell apoptosis in a rat model of sepsis by promoting expression of heat shock protein J Surg Res — Li R, Wang X, Lawler K, Garg S, Bai Q, Alty J Applications of artificial intelligence to aid detection of dementia: a scoping review on current capabilities and future directions.

J Biomed Inform , Liang W, Xu W, Zhu J, Zhu Y, Gu Q, Li Y, Guo C, Huang Y, Yu J, Wang W Ginkgo biloba extract improves brain uptake of ginsenosides by increasing blood-brain barrier permeability via activating A1 adenosine receptor signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol Neurochem Res — Neurodegenerative Dis Management — Morris R Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 11 47 Google Scholar.

Morrison CD, Pistell PJ, Ingram DK, Johnson WD, Liu Y, Fernandez-Kim SO, White CL, Purpera MN, Uranga RM, Bruce-Keller AJ High fat diet increases hippocampal oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in aged mice: implications for decreased Nrf2 signaling. Mukai R, Satsu H, Shimizu M, Ashida H Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein enhances the suppressive effect of kaempferol on transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

Biotechnol Biochem — Jundishapur J Nat Pharmaceutical Products Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem — Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease.

Arch Neurol — Rasmussen T, Fink-Jensen A, Sauerberg P, Swedberg MD, Thomsen C, Sheardown MJ, Jeppesen L, Calligaro DO, Delapp NW, Whitesitt C The muscarinic receptor agonist BuTAC, a novel potential antipsychotic, does not impair learning and memory in mouse passive avoidance.

Schizophr Res — Ren Y, Li H, Liu X Effects of ginkgo leaf tablets on the pharmacokinetics of atovastatin in rats. Pharm Biol — Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Teng E, Begum AN, Bardens J, Beigi M, Gylys KH, Badmaev V, Heath DD, Apostolova LGJASR, Therapy Oral curcumin for Alzheimer's disease: tolerability and efficacy in a week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

Alzheimers Res Ther —8. Rodgers PA Designing work with people living with dementia: reflecting on a decade of research. Int J Environ Res Public Health Life Sci Setyaningsih D, Murti Y, Martono S, Hinrichs W, Hertiani T, Fudholi A A novel reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method to accurately determine low concentrations of curcumin in rat plasma.

Int J Pharmaceutical Clin Res 8 Suppl — Neurobiol Dis — Singh SK, Srivastav S, Castellani RJ, Plascencia-Villa G, Perry G Neuroprotective and antioxidant effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against AD and other neurological disorders.

Neurotherapeutics — Tian X, Zhang L, Wang J, Dai J, Shen S, Yang L, Huang P The protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen and ginkgo biloba extract on Aβ25—induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in rats.

Behav Brain Res —8. Tsai Y-M, Chien C-F, Lin L-C, Tsai T-H Curcumin and its nano-formulation: the kinetics of tissue distribution and blood—brain barrier penetration. Int J Pharm — Verma S, Sharma S, Ranawat P, Nehru B Modulatory effects of ginkgo biloba against amyloid aggregation through induction of heat shock proteins in aluminium induced neurotoxicity.

Lancet Neurol — Witkin JM, Li X Curcumin, an active constiuent of the ancient medicinal herb Curcuma longa L. J Biol Chem — Xing X, Kong M, Hou Q, Li J, Qian W, Chen X, Li H, Yang C Effects of ginkgo leaf tablet on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone in rats and its potential mechanism.

Molecules Zeng K, Li M, Hu J, Mahaman YA, Bao J, Huang F, Xia Y, Liu X, Wang Q, Wang J-Z Ginkgo biloba extract EGb attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced AD like tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive impairment in rats. Curr Alzheimer Res — Zhang C, Fan Q, Chen S-L, Ma H a Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci — EBioMedicine — Zhao J, Li K, Wang Y, Li D, Wang Q, Xie S, Wang J, Zuo Z Enhanced anti-amnestic effect of donepezil by ginkgo biloba extract EGb via further improvement in pro-cholinergic and antioxidative activities.

Download references. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, , Egypt.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by A-AA-MMA, DMMB, MMYF, MAAN, and EAHA.

The first draft of the manuscript was written by MAAN and EAHA. All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Mariam A. This study was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations of the international guidelines on animal Care.

The protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines Medical ethics committee, Assiut University , the approved ethical number We the undersigned declare that this manuscript is original, has not been published before and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.

We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed. We further confirm that the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all of us.

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Methodology Experimental animals Male Wistar rats 8—10 months old, average weight —g were purchased and housed in the animal house facility, faculty of Medicine, Assiut University until they were slaughtered. Experimental and treatment schedule Experimental procedure Cognitive impairment was induced in rats by a newly modified model for AD, using scopolamine hydrobromide trihydrate and a mixture of heavy metals.

Behavioral tests Passive avoidance task PA The passive avoidance task was tested using equipment consisting of an electric grid floor divided into two equal-sized sections light and dark by a sliding door Ugo Basile, Italy.

Morris water maze MWM The MWM was used to test spatial memory in rats. Novel object recognition test NORT The NORT was used to examine non-spatial and long-term memory, which is considered the primary cognitive loss in AD.

Estimation of acetylcholinesterase AChE activity The hippocampal levels of AChE were measured using ELISA kit ABclonal Technology , and the absorbance was read at nm using a microtiter plate reader. Full size image. Data availability The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References Abbas S, Latif M, Shafie N, Ghazali M, Abidin N, Mustafa M, Kormin F A review of antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of Centella asiatica L. J Chem Neuroanat Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Akinyemi AJ, Oboh G, Oyeleye SI, Ogunsuyi O Anti-amnestic effect of curcumin in combination with donepezil, an anticholinesterase drug: involvement of cholinergic system.

Neurotox Res — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Antona ME, González PM, Ramos C, Cabrera J, Olano C, Morales C, Zago V, Steimetz T, Puntarulo S, Friedman SM Curcumin exerts a protective effect against obesity and liver injury induced by an atherogenic diet.

Funct Foods Health Dis — CAS Google Scholar Antunes M, Biala G The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications. Cogn Process — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ashok A, Rai NK, Tripathi S, Bandyopadhyay S Exposure to As- Cd-, and Pb-mixture induces Aβ, amyloidogenic APP processing and cognitive impairments via oxidative stress-dependent neuroinflammation in young rats.

Pre-Clinical Research 2 1 Assi A-A, Abdelnabi S, Attaai A, Abd-Ellatief RB Effect of ivabradine on cognitive functions of rats with scopolamine-induced dementia. Toxicology —25 Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Banji OJ, Banji D, Ch K Curcumin and hesperidin improve cognition by suppressing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by D-galactose in rat brain.

Food Chem Toxicol —59 Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Barichello T, dos Santos I, Savi GD, Simões LR, Silvestre T, Comim CM, Sachs D, Teixeira MM, Teixeira AL, Quevedo J TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and cinc-1 levels in rat brain after meningitis induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

J Neuroimmunol —45 Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Begum AN, Jones MR, Lim GP, Morihara T, Kim P, Heath DD, Rock CL, Pruitt MA, Yang F, Hudspeth BJJOP, Therapeutics E Curcumin structure-function, bioavailability, and efficacy in models of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther — Article CAS Google Scholar Beutler E Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med — CAS PubMed Google Scholar Botton PH, Costa MS, Ardais AP, Mioranzza S, Souza DO, da Rocha JBT, Porciúncula LO Caffeine prevents disruption of memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks by scopolamine in adult mice.

Pharmacol Rev —61 Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Cahill MK, Huang EJ Testing the amyloid hypothesis with a humanized AD mouse model. Med Res Rev — Article PubMed Google Scholar Dong X Current strategies for brain drug delivery.

Brain Res — Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar El Gizawy HA, Abo-Salem HM, Ali AA, Hussein MA Phenolic profiling and therapeutic potential of certain isolated compounds from parkia roxburghii against AChE activity as well as GABAA α5, GSK-3β, and p38α MAP-kinase genes.

ACS Omega — Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres JRV, Featherstone RM A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity.

Biochem Pharmacol —95 Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Fan L, Tao G-Y, Wang G, Chen Y, Zhang W, He Y-J, Li Q, Lei H-P, Jiang F, Hu D-L Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers.

Ann Pharmacother — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Fan C-D, Li Y, Fu X-T, Wu Q-J, Hou Y-J, Yang M-F, Sun J-Y, Fu X-Y, Zheng Z-C, Sun B-L Reversal of beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by curcumin, the important role of ROS-mediated signaling and ERK pathway.

Cell Mol Neurobiol — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Forloni G, Chiesa R, Smiroldo S, Verga L, Salmona M, Tagliavini F, Angeretti N Apoptosis mediated neurotoxicity induced by chronic application of beta amyloid fragment 25— Ann Neurol — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Guo C, Wang H, Liang W, Xu W, Li Y, Song L, Zhang D, Hu Y, Han B, Wang W Bilobalide reversibly modulates blood-brain barrier permeability through promoting adenosine A1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of actin-binding proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Hoerr R, Zimmermann A, Seitz F, Dienel A Single and repeated doses of EGb ® do not affect pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in healthy subjects.

J Neurochem — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Li W, Tao S, Wu Q, Wu T, Tao R, Fan J Glutamine reduces myocardial cell apoptosis in a rat model of sepsis by promoting expression of heat shock protein J Surg Res — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Li R, Wang X, Lawler K, Garg S, Bai Q, Alty J Applications of artificial intelligence to aid detection of dementia: a scoping review on current capabilities and future directions.

J Biomed Inform , Liang W, Xu W, Zhu J, Zhu Y, Gu Q, Li Y, Guo C, Huang Y, Yu J, Wang W Ginkgo biloba extract improves brain uptake of ginsenosides by increasing blood-brain barrier permeability via activating A1 adenosine receptor signaling pathway.

Neurodegenerative Dis Management — Article Google Scholar Morris R Developments of a water-maze procedure for studying spatial learning in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 11 47 Google Scholar Morrison CD, Pistell PJ, Ingram DK, Johnson WD, Liu Y, Fernandez-Kim SO, White CL, Purpera MN, Uranga RM, Bruce-Keller AJ High fat diet increases hippocampal oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in aged mice: implications for decreased Nrf2 signaling.

J Neurochem — Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Mukai R, Satsu H, Shimizu M, Ashida H Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein enhances the suppressive effect of kaempferol on transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Jundishapur J Nat Pharmaceutical Products 13 Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction.

Anal Biochem — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease.

Schizophr Res — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ren Y, Li H, Liu X Effects of ginkgo leaf tablets on the pharmacokinetics of atovastatin in rats. Pharm Biol — Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Ringman JM, Frautschy SA, Teng E, Begum AN, Bardens J, Beigi M, Gylys KH, Badmaev V, Heath DD, Apostolova LGJASR, Therapy Oral curcumin for Alzheimer's disease: tolerability and efficacy in a week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

Alzheimers Res Ther —8 Article Google Scholar Rodgers PA Designing work with people living with dementia: reflecting on a decade of research. Life Sci Article Google Scholar Setyaningsih D, Murti Y, Martono S, Hinrichs W, Hertiani T, Fudholi A A novel reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method to accurately determine low concentrations of curcumin in rat plasma.

Neurobiol Dis — Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Singh SK, Srivastav S, Castellani RJ, Plascencia-Villa G, Perry G Neuroprotective and antioxidant effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against AD and other neurological disorders. Neurotherapeutics — Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Tian X, Zhang L, Wang J, Dai J, Shen S, Yang L, Huang P The protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen and ginkgo biloba extract on Aβ25—induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in rats.

Behav Brain Res —8 Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Tsai Y-M, Chien C-F, Lin L-C, Tsai T-H Curcumin and its nano-formulation: the kinetics of tissue distribution and blood—brain barrier penetration. Int J Pharm — Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Verma S, Sharma S, Ranawat P, Nehru B Modulatory effects of ginkgo biloba against amyloid aggregation through induction of heat shock proteins in aluminium induced neurotoxicity.

Thermogenesis and metabolism CURthe major polyphenolic compound of turmeric Alzjeimers longa Diesase, and Ginkgo biloba extract GBE Diseaxe natural substances Preventing heart disease through cholesterol control Diseaee conventional Chinese herbs Diseqse have Alzheiers been Curccumin Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease provide therapeutic advantages Diuretic effect on pregnancy AD. The Alzhdimers of curcumin into Herbal digestion aids brain is severely restricted by its low ability to cross the blood—brain barrier BBB. Meanwhile, GBE has been shown to improve BBB permeability. This was associated with a more pronounced inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase AChEcaspase-3, hippocampal amyloid beta Aβand phosphorylated tau protein p-tau count, and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α and interleukine-1beta IL-1βas compared to the curcumin alone-treated group. Additionally, the combined treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation MDA and increased levels of reduced glutathione GSHwhen compared with the curcumin alone. This study sheds light on a new approach for exploring new phyto-therapies for AD and emphasizes that more research should focus on the synergic effects of herbal drugs in future. Alzheimer popular spice, taken in small Alzheiers, may help improve memory, Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease whether it can reverse dementia Resveratrol as an antioxidant to be seen. Shetty says. Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease, the root has been used in cooking — particularly in India — as well as in medicine, primarily in southern Asia. It has been used to treat breathing problems, rheumatic diseases like arthritispain, and fatigue, the NIH says. Clinical studies are ongoing. Turmeric and curcumin are widely available as dietary and nutritional supplements.

Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease -

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By Brian P. Medically Reviewed. The method linearity correlation coefficient of 0. Throughout the acquisition trials, the initial latencies were not significantly different among animal groups.

a Passive avoidance PA test. Step-Through Latency STL to enter the dark compartment in seconds, 24 h after training, b Escape latency to reach previously submerged platform in the Morris water maze MWM probe trail following 6 days of the acquisition trail, c Time spent on the target quadrant in MWM probe trail where the platform was located.

MEM group. During the acquisition phase of this test, a gradual decrease in latency to the escape platform was seen across the 6 days of acquisition, demonstrating that the acquisition was obtained gradually. The combination-treated rats demonstrated the most prolonged time spent in the target quadrant compared to that of MEM-treated group, while there was no significant difference in the group treated with curcumin only and the group treated with the combination in terms of time spent in the target quadrant.

During the training phase, no significant difference was detected in the time spent exploring two identical objects put in diagonal locations among the tested groups, demonstrating that the positioning of the objects had no impact on the exploratory behavior of rats Fig.

and 24 h. respectively Fig. A Total exploration time for familiar object in sec in the NORT. CUR group. The concentrations of curcumin in the hippocampus and plasma were detected by RP-HPLC Table 1.

The data suggest that the combined ginkgo biloba extract and curcumin increased curcumin absorption in the plasma and distribution in the brain hippocampus compared to its administration alone. The curcumin concentration was detected 30 min and 1 h after oral curcumin administration, Fig.

CUR group unpaired t test. The effect of natural substances on neurodegeneration and apoptosis in demented rats was studied by following hippocampal caspase-3 activity. When compared to healthy rats, diseased rats had a significant increase in caspase-3 levels in the hippocampus 0.

Diseased rats had considerably higher hippocampal levels of TNF-α and IL-1β than normal control rats In contrast, after 28 days of treatment with MEM and natural agents, there was a significant reduction in the elevated TNF-α levels compared to diseased rats In the same manner, IL-1β levels notably declined in the hippocampus of animals treated with MEM and natural agents relative to diseased rats Remarkably, the hippocampal levels of oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly altered in natural agents treated groups in comparison with diseased rats.

Similarly, p-tau immunoreactivity was considerably lowered by treatment MEM: 2. Immunohistochemical examination of AD pathological hallmarks in rat hippocampal tissue. Photomicrographs of Aβ protein deposits a and p-tau protein positive cells b in brain sections of rats of different groups.

It is most manifested in AD. Extracellular amyloid beta Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles comprised hyper-phosphorylated Tau protein p-Tau represent the major pathological hallmarks of AD. Curcumin was found to affect pathways such as the β-amyloid cascade, tau phosphorylation, neuro-inflammation, and oxidative stress sequelae that are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders Witkin and Li ; Fan et al.

It was thus concluded that CUR might be used therapeutically to reduce neuro-inflammation in AD. However, curcumin limited absorption as well as permeability through the BBB restricts its therapeutic potential. To achieve acceptable therapeutic results, free CUR can be delivered to target tissues by increasing its bioavailability in the brain and plasma Anand et al.

Thus, our study focused on increasing CUR concentration in the plasma and brain in a trial to enhance its neuroprotective effects on AD parameters. Based on previous reports on the potential ability of GBE to boost the distribution of the co-administered drugs to brain tissue, the present study investigated the effect of GBE supplementation on CUR plasma and brain concentrations, in addition to its beneficial effects on an AD animal model.

This is probably the first study investigating the simultaneous oral administration of CUR with GBE followed by quantifying CUR concentration in plasma and brain using RP-HPLC analysis. The enhancement of CUR bioavailability and brain distribution may be attributed to the presence of flavones in GBE.

These flavones act as inhibitors of the p-glycoprotein pathway; a significant bottleneck in CUR absorption and distribution. In addition, GBE's capacity to open gap junctions and raise the para-cellular permeability of the BBB via adenosine receptor activation may be another beneficial mechanism.

The increased bioavailability induced by GBE is in line with several other studies Ren et al. One of these studies found that the concentration of four ginsenosides the major pharmacologically active components of Ginseng increased in the brain of rats treated with a combination of Ginseng and GBE Liang et al.

In contrast, some reports found that GBE decreases the plasma concentration of the co-administered drugs Hoerr et al. Both CUR and GBE have long been known to help treat and prevent AD.

Hence, we studied the effect of their concurrent administration on AD-like alterations. Due to its numerous limitations to mimic human AD, SCO model was used in the present study with some modifications.

Ashok et al. Therefore, the present study used a modified SCO model by addition of HMM to enhance the pathological features of the traditional SCO model. Our novel model met the requirements for AD induction, and this was confirmed by significant memory decline, elevation in brain lipid peroxidation biomarkers, Aβ deposits, p-tau Ser positive cells, TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as caspase-3 and AChE activity.

On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in GSH level. Similar findings from other researches conducted on SCO model support these outcomes San Tang ; Ashok et al. Many previous studies reported that CUR alone has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, decreases Aβ deposits, p-tau Ser aggregation, decreases caspase-3 hippocampal levels and acts as anti or decreases cholinesterase activity, with concurrent improvement in the cognitive function in different AD animal models induced by many substances including SCO Lin et al.

To examine the impact of CUR alone and CUR and GBE combination, the following tests the PA, MWM, and the NORT were chosen to evaluate the behavioral changes in different groups of rats. These tasks are widely used to evaluate learning and memory Morris, , Rasmussen et al.

In addition, rats treated with these natural products showed a significant reduction in the escape latency, while spending noticeably more time in the target quadrant in the MWM probe trial.

In harmony with our results, Zhao et al. Moreover, the study of Abdelmeguid et al. Notably, no previous studies reported the effect of GBE, in combination, on AD pathological hallmarks. However, GBE alone has a proven efficacy on theses hallmarks in previous reports Nikmahzar et al.

Numerous investigations have revealed that SCO induces brain oxidative stress. Likewise, human AD brains have elevated levels of ROS reactive oxygen species. Consequently, scavenging oxygen free radicals is one of the most essential criteria for an AD modifying drug Morrison et al.

Interestingly, the combination produced a more pronounced effect on the oxidative stress parameters than CUR alone. In accordance to our results, Zhao et al. Additionally, the study of Tian et al.

Microglial cells in the CNS trigger inflammatory processes by releasing cytokines in response to APP amyloid precursor protein , which leads to a continuous state of inflammation. This cascade worsens the neural plaque load and accelerates the progression of the disease Dong et al.

To overcome this, a disease-modifying drug should also target neuro-inflammation Coman and Nemeş, These findings strengthened the notion of the involvement of neuro-inflammation in the cognitive dysfunction and suggest its role in the dysregulated or increased levels AChE activity and subsequent behavioral alterations observed in demented rats.

Again, the combination resulted in a more profound reduction in hippocampal TNF-α and IL-1β levels than CUR alone. Also, the study of Abdelmeguid et al revealed that the combined treatment of docosahexaenoic acid and GBE significantly decreased TNF-α level compared to diseased rats.

All these findings suggest that GBE can improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of CUR, and this could be attributed to enhancement of CUR brain levels by the co-administered GBE as confirmed by HPLC results.

Both experimental animals and AD patients' neurons displayed apoptotic alterations, such as caspase-3 activation Forloni et al.

This protease is thought to be crucial for apoptosis because it performs an irreversible phase in the apoptotic process Wolf et al.

The combined effects of CUR and GBE were more pronounced than CUR alone. Similarly, Tian et al. Another well-known fact is that AChE expression and activity control the dynamic concentration of ACh in the cholinergic synapses of the brain Buckingham et al.

Our result revealed that co-administration of CUR and GBE produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE hippocampal activity as compared to the diseased group. This inhibitory effect was also more pronounced than those animals treated with CUR alone. In agreement to this finding, Zhao et al.

Again, these findings support the idea that co-administration of GBE can enhance the beneficial effects of CUR on AD-like alterations, including anti-cholinesterase activity and caspase-3 level.

This may also be the result of increasing central CUR levels. This combination dramatically enhanced the beneficial effects of CUR. In addition, the increased ability of curcumin by ginkgo biloba extract to attenuate cholinesterase activity, and enhance its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, was evidenced.

These effects may be mediated by activate gap junctions, improve the para-cellular permeability of the BBB via adenosine receptor activation and P-glycoprotein inhibitor of ginkgo biloba extract. This research may serve as a stepping stone to the creation of an innovative anti-neurodegeneration prophylactic strategy.

Moreover, it may support the idea that ginkgo biloba extract and curcumin may be used together to prevent the central pathological changes that result in the occurrence of AD, and arrest the progression of AD successfully.

Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be applied to reveal the effectiveness of this combination strategy in treatment of the AD. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Some data may not be made available because of privacy or ethical restrictions.

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Download references. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt,

Metrics details. Ckrcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma Long Alzheimres Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease Sweet potato and carrot puree been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as effects on reducing beta-amyloid aggregation. It Alzheimeers pathology in transgenic Azheimers Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease Crucumin Preventing heart disease through cholesterol control AD Curcuimn is a promising candidate for treating human AD. The purpose of the current study is to generate tolerability and preliminary clinical and biomarker efficacy data on curcumin in persons with AD. We performed a week randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of Curcumin C3 Complex ® with an open-label extension to 48 weeks. The primary outcome measures were incidence of adverse events, changes in clinical laboratory tests and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale ADAS-Cog at 24 weeks in those completing the study.

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